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9 characteristics of life


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9 characteristics of life

  2. 2. What is Life? <ul><li>Definitely we all know what “LIFE” is. But how do we define it? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know that a thing is ALIVE? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it move, breathe ,eat and grow? </li></ul><ul><li>Even though we all seem to know what is meant by saying something is &quot;alive&quot;, it's not very easy to describe what &quot;life&quot; is. It's almost as hard as describing the ORIGIN OF LIFE. </li></ul><ul><li>Even the biologists have a tough time describing what life is! </li></ul><ul><li>But after many years of studying living things, biologists have determined that all living things do share some things in common: </li></ul>
  3. 3. CHROMENGS <ul><li>C ommunicate </li></ul><ul><li>H omeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>R eproduce </li></ul><ul><li>O rganization </li></ul><ul><li>M ovement </li></ul><ul><li>E xcretion/Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>N utrition/Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>G rowth/Development </li></ul><ul><li>S ensitivity/Adaptation </li></ul>
  4. 4. COMMUNICATE <ul><li>Every information exchange between living organisms — i.e. transmission of signals that involve a living sender and receiver can be considered a form of communication (for example, the male gray tree frog, Hyla versicolor , produces a call which is used to attract a female) </li></ul><ul><li>communicate with organisms similar to themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Communication allows living things to express their needs, wants, and other things. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is used to give warning, to tell of food, to express ideas, etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>and even primitive creatures such as corals are competent to communicate.(pheromones-reproduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Nonhuman communication also include cell signaling (e.g. tissue repair), cellular communication, and chemical transmissions between primitive organisms like bacteria and within the plant and fungal kingdoms. ( Plant roots communicate in parallel with rhizome bacteria , with fungi and with insects in the soil.) </li></ul><ul><li>animals and human use their senses in communication sometimes even using body language or behaviors. </li></ul>
  6. 6. HOMEOSTASIS <ul><li>any self-regulating process by which biological systems tend to maintain stability while adjusting to conditions that are optimal for survival. If homeostasis is successful, life continues; if unsuccessful, disaster or death ensues. </li></ul><ul><li>The nervous and endocrine systems control homeostasis in the body through feedback mechanisms involving various organs and organ systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of homeostatic processes in the body include temperature control, pH balance, water and electrolyte balance, blood pressure, and respiration. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Blood sugar regulation The pancreas is an endocrine gland which produces hormones which regulate blood glucose (sugar) levels An increase in blood sugar level triggers the release of the hormone insulin by the pancreas the hormone insulin lowers blood sugar level restoring the body to its original blood glucose level in two major ways: it increases the ability of body cells to take in glucose from the blood it converts blood glucose to the compound glycogen -- this compound is also called animal starch and is stored in our liver and muscles
  8. 8. Maintenance of Water plants need to regulate water loss and carbon dioxide intake for photosynthesis and other life activities when plants do not keep enough water in their cells, they wilt and die stomate : a microscopic hole in a plant leaf which allows gases to enter and leave and water vapor to leave as well. Stomata is the plural of stomate. guard cells : open and close the stomate. the ability of the guard cell to close during periods of limited water availability for the plant allows the plant to maintain water homeostasis
  9. 9. REPRODUCE <ul><li>Reproduction is the process by which an organism produces others of its same kind. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspring are called a species. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose is to ensure that the species survives. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>All living things need to make more copies of themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Inside each living cell is a chemical called Deoxyribonucleic Acid (or DNA for short). It controls what an organism looks like and how it behaves: it's a bit like a computer program. When living cells reproduce they need to make more copies of this DNA code - and that controls the development of a new organism. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Two kinds of Reproduction <ul><li>Asexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new organism (sometimes more than one) is produced from one organism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The offspring will have hereditary material uniform with the hereditary material of the parent organism. This means they will be genetically alike or identical. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>typically requires the involvement of two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals or gametes, one each from opposite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>type of sex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>results in offspring that are genetically different from the parent organisms </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>Budding -Process by which a new, duplicate plant or animal begins to form at the side of the parent and enlarges to maturity until an individual is created. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in plants, yeasts, hydras </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetative reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grafting/cutting </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Binary fission , or prokaryotic fission- process results in the reproduction of a living prokaryotic cell by division into two parts that each have the potential to grow to the size of the original cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell division used by all prokaryotes, some protozoa, and some organelles within eukaryotic organisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitosis is not the same as binary fission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is a very simple way for a cell to reproduce. It simply splits its DNA into two exact copies and then splits the rest of its cell into two. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Most animals(including humans) and plants reproduce sexually. Sexually reproducing organisms have different sets of genes for every trait (called alleles). </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring inherit one allele for each trait from each parent, thereby ensuring that offspring have a combination of the parents' genes. </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean? </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>For sexual reproduction to occur there must be two parents of the same species. When sexual reproduction happens the DNAs from both parents need to combine together to make the child. Different species have different amounts of DNA so they can't combine properly to make a new organism. Rarely does this happen, but if it does, offspring are usually sterile. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Another important thing about sexual reproduction is the fact that the child needs to have exactly the same amount of DNA as its parents. If the parents just joined cells then the child would end up with twice as much DNA as it should have. </li></ul><ul><li>So the parents need to make special sex cells or gametes . These are often called sperm and eggs in animals and pollen and egg cells in flowering plants. </li></ul><ul><li>These gametes have half the amount of DNA as the parents - so that, when they join together, the child has the same amount of DNA as the parent. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Allogamy - is a term describing the fertilization of an ovum from one individual with the spermatozoa of another. </li></ul><ul><li>Autogamy - Self-fertilization occurs in hermaphroditic organisms where the two gametes fused in fertilization come from the same individual. They are bound and all the cells merge to form one new gamete. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis and Meiosis </li></ul><ul><li>are an integral part of cell division . Mitosis occurs in somatic cells , while meiosis occurs in gametes . </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Mitosis - The resultant number of cells in mitosis is twice the number of original cells. The number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is the same as that of the parent cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis - The resultant number of cells is four times the number of original cells. This results in cells with half the number of chromosomes present in the parent cell. </li></ul><ul><li>A diploid cell duplicates itself, then undergoes two divisions ( tetraploid to diploid to haploid), in the process forming four haploid cells. This process occurs in two phases, meiosis I and meiosis II. </li></ul>
  19. 19. ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Living things have a level of complexity and organization not found in lifeless objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Each species has its own type of body organization </li></ul><ul><li>At its most fundamental level, a living thing is composed of one or more cells. </li></ul><ul><li>These units, generally too small to be seen with the unaided eye, are organized into tissues. A tissue is a series of cells that accomplish a shared function. Tissues, in turn, form organs, such as the stomach and kidney. A number of organs working together compose an organ system. An organism is a complex series of various organ systems. All body systems interact with other systems. </li></ul>
  20. 21. MOVEMENT <ul><li>Living things have the ability to move in some way without outside help. The movement may consist of the flow of material within the organism or external movement of the organism or parts of the organism. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of animals usually move their whole bodies often supported by specialised organs such as fins, wings and legs. These are called locomotory organs moving the animal from place to place. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Plant movement is not locomotory and does not generally involve moving the whole body. Leaves turning towards the light or shoots growing upwards whatever the orientation of the rest of the plant are examples of how plants move. These movements are generally very slow and not always obvious. </li></ul><ul><li>Petal bloom </li></ul><ul><li>Makahiya( Mimosa pudica ) </li></ul>
  22. 23. EXCRETION/RESPIRATION <ul><li>Excretion is the process by which waste products are removed from the body of living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of waste products are formed during the metabolic reactions. If these waste products are accumulated in the body they cause harm to the body. For the normal functions of the body these waste products should be removed from the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The following are important excretory products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess amount of water and salts </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>In single-celled organisms, waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell or simple diffusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular organisms utilize more complex excretory methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher plants eliminate gases through the stomata, or pores, on the surface of leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals have special excretory organs . </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Excretory system of man consist of following parts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is a pair of kidney in abdominal cavity, both are covered by a membrane called peritomium . Each kidney is bean shaped and dark brown in colour. Nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. There are about 1 million nephrons in each kidney. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Excretory product Excretory organ Remarks Carbon dioxide Lungs Gas in expired air Mineral salts Kidneys Constituents of urine <ul><li>Nitrogenous waste products </li></ul><ul><li>- Mainly urea </li></ul><ul><li>(from deamination of proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>- Creatinine </li></ul><ul><li>(from muscle tissue breakdown) </li></ul><ul><li>- Uric acid </li></ul><ul><li>(from breakdown of nuclear materials) </li></ul>Skin Constituents of sweat, only in small quantities for nitrogenous waste products Excess water Kidney Skin Lungs Main constituent of urine Main constituent of sweat Water vapour in expired air Bile pigments (from haemoglobin breakdown) Liver Via the intestine
  26. 27. <ul><li>Excretion should not be confused with egestion which is the removal from the body of substances with no food value that have passed unused through the digestive systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people misuse the term excretion as a euphemism for defecation, and use excrement for feces, but this is biologically incorrect </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Respiratory system , process of passing gaseous nutrients to the blood, in humans and animals. the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs , and the respiratory muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration , the process in which nutrients are converted into useful energy in a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration (physiology) and Breathing, the physiological process that enables animals to exchange carbon dioxide, the primary product of cellular respiration, for fresh air or oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic respiration , cellular respiration without oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic respiration , the process of animals extracting oxygen from water </li></ul>
  28. 29. NUTRITION/METABOLISM <ul><li>Metabolism - is a collection of chemical reactions that takes place in the body's cells. Metabolism converts the fuel in the food we eat into the energy needed to power everything we do, from moving to thinking to growing. </li></ul><ul><li>It is divided into 2 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catabolism </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Bioenergetics is a term which describes the biochemical or metabolic pathways by which the cell ultimately obtains energy. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Anabolism or Constructive metabolism - is all about building and storing: It supports the growth of new cells, the maintenance of body tissues, and the storage of energy for use in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>During anabolism, small molecules are changed into larger, more complex molecules of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Building up cells and cellular components </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Catabolism or Destructive metabolism - is the process that produces the energy required for all activity in the cells. In this process, cells break down large molecules (mostly carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>and fats) to release energy. </li></ul><ul><li>This energy release provides fuel for anabolism, heats the body, and enables the muscles to contract and the body to move. </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet. </li></ul><ul><li>The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods. </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Essential foods supply energy (calories) and supply the necessary chemicals which the body itself cannot synthesize. Food provides a variety of substances that are essential for the building, upkeep, and repair of body tissues, and for the efficient functioning of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>A complete diet must supply the elements; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and at least 18 other inorganic elements. The major elements are supplied in carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. In addition, at least 17 vitamins and water are necessary. If an essential nutrient is omitted from the diet, certain deficiency symptoms appear. </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Growth is marked with enlargement of body size </li></ul><ul><li>Development is defined as a progression toward maturity. </li></ul>GROWTH/DEVELOPMENT
  35. 38. The differences between growth and development Growth Development Increasing of size and number of cell A maturation process of life Reproduction by Mitosis Reproduction by Meiosis Found in Meristem Tissue (for plants) Found in Gametes Quantitative Qualitative Reversible Irreversible grow physically that naturally occur during the early stages of your life product of psychological and social growth, emphasized by environmental and individual behavioral factors
  36. 39. SENSITIVITY/ADAPTATION <ul><li>Sensitivity- The ability of an organism or organ to respond to external stimuli is called sensitivity . Considered as a reaction to a change or to a stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt - means to change or adjust for a purpose. For animals the purpose of adapting is to be able to survive in the environment that they live in. Adaptation is for defense and protection, for others it is for reproduction, locomotion, etc. </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>One of the main parts of survival is to make adaptations to their habitat by altering their structures or by their behavior . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: The shape of a bird’s beak, number of fingers and toes, or the color of an animal’s fur. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical adaptations do not develop during one lifetime, but over many generations. </li></ul>
  38. 41. STRUCTURAL ADAPTATION <ul><li>-example: The shape of an animal’s teeth is related to its diet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores, like sharks and lions, have sharp canines to kill and tear meat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores,like pandas and deer, have many molars for chewing tough grass and plants. </li></ul></ul>.
  39. 42. <ul><li>The smell of the skunk is for defense </li></ul>The scales of the snake is for climbing The squill of a hedgehog is for defense The burs of the plants is for seed dispersal ( reproduction ) since it will attach to an animal and fall of somewhere else The bright color of a poisonous frog is for offense and defense
  40. 43. CAMOUFLAGE <ul><li>Body coverings also acts for protection like fur, color and shape. This term is camouflage where it will allow the organism to blend to its environment. </li></ul>
  41. 44. MIMICRY <ul><li>allows one animal to look, sound, taste, smell or act like another animal either to prey, mate or to avoid being a meal. It is different from camouflage because it doesn’t hide but displays or “advertises “ it. </li></ul>
  42. 45. BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATION <ul><li>Behaviour adaptations include activities that help an animal survive.  </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour adaptations can be learned or instinctive (a behavior an animal is born with) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Social behaviour   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Behaviour for protection </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>- Social behavior - some animals live by themselves, while other live in groups.  ( Wolf Pack hunting) </li></ul><ul><li>- Behavior for protection -  An animal's behavior sometimes helps to protect the animal.  For instance the opossum plays dead.  A rabbit freezes when it thinks it has been seen.  </li></ul>
  44. 47. BEHAVIORAL <ul><li>When the habitat changes, three main things may happen to a resident population: habitat tracking, genetic change or extinction . In fact, all three things may occur in sequence. Of these three effects, only genetic change brings about adaptation . </li></ul>EVOLUTION SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST NATURAL SELECTION
  45. 48. Print master <ul><li>Thank You. You may download or print this for your lesson. </li></ul>More Free PowerPoint Templates at