Hormones & Reproduction


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  • Hormones coordinate slower but longer–acting responses to stimuli such as stress, dehydration, and low blood glucose levels. Hormones also regulate long–term developmental processes by informing different parts of the body how fast to grow or when to develop the characteristics that distinguish male from female or juvenile from adult. Hormone–secreting organs, called endocrine glands, are referred to as ductless glands because they secrete their chemical messengers directly into extracellular fluid. From there, the chemicals diffuse into the circulation.
  • Hormones & Reproduction

    1. 1. 2006-2007 Endocrine System Hormones Reproduction
    2. 2. Hormones <ul><li>Why are hormones needed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chemical messages from one body part to cells in other parts of body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication needed to coordinate whole body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintaining homeostasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>energy production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maturation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul>growth hormones
    3. 3. Endocrine System <ul><li>Endocrine system releases hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glands which secrete chemical signals into blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chemicals cause changes in other parts of body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>slow, long-lasting response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth hormones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sex hormones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>response hormones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>metabolism hormones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and more…. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Regulation by chemical messengers <ul><li>Hormones released by endocrine glands </li></ul>axon endocrine gland Receptor sites target cell receptor molecules hormone carried by blood neurotransmitter
    5. 5. Glands <ul><li>Pituitary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many hormones: master gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thyroid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thyroxine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glucagon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ovary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Body Regulation <ul><li>Nervous system & Endocrine system work together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ master nerve control center ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>receives information from nerves around body about internal conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communicates with pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ master gland ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>releases many hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sexual development, growth, milk production, pain-relief </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>hormones hormones
    7. 7. Maintaining homeostasis hormone 1 lowers body condition hormone 2 gland specific body condition raises body condition gland Feedback high low
    8. 8. Negative Feedback <ul><li>Response to changed body condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>every time body is high or low from normal level a signal tells the body to make changes that will bring body back to normal level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>once body is back to normal level , signal is turned off </li></ul></ul>hormone 1 lowers body condition gland specific body condition high
    9. 9. Controlling Body Temperature nerve signals sweat nerve signals brain body temperature shiver brain dilates surface blood vessels constricts surface blood vessels Nervous System Control Feedback high low
    10. 10. Regulation of Blood Sugar blood sugar level (90mg/100ml) insulin body cells take up sugar from blood glucagon Feedback Endocrine System Control pancreas pancreas high low
    11. 11. Negative Feedback <ul><li>Negative feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>every time body is high or low from normal level a signal tells the body to make changes that will bring body back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>body temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control of blood sugar </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Sex & Growth Hormones <ul><li>Large scale body changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how do they work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>turn genes on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>start new processes in the body by turning genes on that were lying “dormant” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Pituitary gland hormones <ul><li>Sex & reproductive hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>follicle stimulating hormone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates egg & sperm production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>luteinizing hormone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates ovaries & testes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prepares uterus for fertilized egg </li></ul></ul></ul>hormones hormones
    14. 14. Reproductive hormones <ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from testes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sperm production & secondary sexual characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from ovaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>egg production, preparing uterus for fertilized egg & secondary sexual characteristics </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Sperm production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>over 100 million produced per day! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~2.5 million released per drop! </li></ul></ul>Male reproductive system
    16. 16. spermatocytes seminiferous tubule sperm
    17. 17. Male reproductive system <ul><li>Testes & epididymis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sperm production & maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produce seminal fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nutrient-rich </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Male reproductive system <ul><li>Testicles (Testes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces sperm & hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scrotum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sac that holds testicles outside of body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vas deferens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tubes for sperm to travel from testes to penis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prostate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces nutrient rich fluid to feed & protect sperm </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Female reproductive system
    20. 20. Female reproductive system <ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces eggs & hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nurtures fetus; lining builds up each month </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oviduct (Fallopian tubes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tubes for eggs to travel from ovaries to uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cervix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opening to uterus, dilates 10 cm for birthing baby </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>birth canal for birthing baby </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Female reproductive system
    22. 22. Egg maturation in ovary releases progesterone maintains uterus lining produces estrogen
    23. 23. Menstrual cycle LH FSH estrogen progesterone lining of uterus egg development ovulation = egg release corpus luteum 0 7 14 21 28 days <ul><li>Controlled by interaction of 4 hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FSH & LH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>estrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>progesterone </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Female reproductive cycle pregnancy maintains uterus lining Feedback estrogen egg matures & is released (ovulation) builds up uterus lining FSH & LH progesterone progesterone fertilized egg (zygote) HCG corpus luteum breaks down progesterone drops menstruation maintains uterus lining GnRH pituitary gland hypothalamus corpus luteum ovary no yes corpus luteum
    25. 25. Female hormones <ul><li>FSH & LH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>released from pituitary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates egg development & hormone release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peak release = release of egg (ovulation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>released from ovary cells around developing egg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates growth of lining of uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreasing levels causes menstruation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>released from “corpus luteum” in ovaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cells that used to take care of developing egg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates blood supply to lining of uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreasing levels causes menstruation </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Fertilization
    27. 27. Any Questions?? 2006-2007
    28. 28. What do they do? <ul><li>Maintain homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood sugar level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temperature control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start a new process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fetal development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual development </li></ul></ul>Body Temperature