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Mr Exham IGCSE - Cell Differentiation and Organisation

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This is a presentation designed to help explain the section of the Edexcel IGCSE Biology course about cell differentiation and organisation. For more help with IGCSE Biology please visit mrexham.com

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Mr Exham IGCSE - Cell Differentiation and Organisation

  1. 1. IGCSE Biology – 4BI0 MAKING SENSE OF Copyright©2015HenryExham Icons CC – The Pink GroupIcons CC – The Pink Group Copyright©2017HenryExham
  2. 2. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Objectives 2 • Can you explain the organisation of an organism using the following terms: organelles, cells, tissues, organs and organ systems?
  3. 3. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Cell division 3 • Multicellular organisms begin life as a single fertilised egg cell called a ZYGOTE. • It then divides over and over again by MITOSIS
  4. 4. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Differentiation 4 • As the developing embryo grows, cells become specialised to carry out particular roles. • This is called differentiation and is controlled by genes. • As all cells have the same genes, some must be switched on and some switched off for this to work. This is discussed further in the IGCSE course.
  5. 5. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Specialised cells 5 • Here are a few examples of specialised cells that you will meet throughout the IGCSE Biology course. • They will be mentioned briefly here as they will be explained fully in each relevant section.
  6. 6. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Specialised cells 6 • Very long cell for carrying impulses around the body along its axon. • Insulated by a myelin sheath to make the signal travel quicker.
  7. 7. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Specialised cells 7 • Sperm cells have a tail for swimming. • The head contains the genes from the father in the nucleus. • The acrosome digests its way into the egg for fertilisation.
  8. 8. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Specialised cells 8 • This cell is found in the leaves of plants. • It is packed full of chloroplasts for photosynthesis. • It is a regular shape in order to pack many into the leaf.
  9. 9. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Specialised cells 9 • This carries the water up the stem of a plant. • It is dead, hollow and strengthened in order to do this.
  10. 10. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Cells tissues and organs 10 • Each cell has many organelles inside it’s cytoplasm to help it carry out its function. • Cells with a similar function are grouped together in TISSUES. • A collection of similar tissues carrying out a particular function is called an ORGAN. • In animals, jobs are usually carried out by several different organs working together. This is called an ORGAN SYSTEM.
  11. 11. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Cells tissues and organs 11 Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems
  12. 12. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Cells tissues and organs 12 Some of the key major human organs
  13. 13. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.1 Life Processes – Differentiation and organisation Cells tissues and organs 13
  14. 14. This PowerPoint is protected under copyright. It is designed for educational use. Either personal study or to be presented to a class. It may be edited or duplicated for these purposes only. It must not be shared or distributed online in any format. Some images used are under a separate creative commons license, these are clearly marked. Copyright © 2017 Henry Exham Brought to you by MrExham.com TERMS AND CONDITIONS 14

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