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  • Which is to say… if you don’t eat, you die… because you run out of energy. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics takes over!
  • We eat to take in the fuels to make ATP which will then be used to help us build biomolecules and grow and move and… live! heterotrophs = “fed by others” vs. autotrophs = “self-feeders”
  • Movement of hydrogen atoms from glucose to water
  • Movement of hydrogen atoms from glucose to water
  • 15respiration2007

    1. 1. Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy 2007-2008 ATP
    2. 2. Energy needs of life <ul><li>Animals are energy consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do we need energy for? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>synthesis (building) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>active transport (pumping) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>temperature control (making heat) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Where do we get energy? <ul><li>Energy is stored in organic molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates, fats, proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animals eat these organic molecules  food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digest food to get </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fuels for energy (ATP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>raw materials for building more molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. 2007-2008 ATP What is energy in biology? Whoa ! HOT stuff ! Adenosine Tri Phosphate
    5. 5. Harvesting energy stored in food <ul><li>Cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>breaking down food to produce ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in mitochondria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>using oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually digesting glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but could be other sugars, fats, or proteins </li></ul></ul></ul>glucose + oxygen  carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP  + + + + heat
    6. 6. What do we need to make energy? <ul><li>The “Furnace” for making energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates, fats, proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Helpers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ aerobic” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes </li></ul></ul>Make ATP! Make ATP! All I do all day… And no one even notices! enzymes O 2 food ATP
    7. 7. Mitochondria are everywhere!! animal cells plant cells
    8. 8. “ Burn fuels” to make energy combustion making heat energy by burning fuels in one step CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP (+ heat ) respiration making ATP energy (& some heat) by burning fuels in many small steps CO 2 + H 2 O + heat fuel (carbohydrates) O 2 ATP food (carbohydrates) O 2
    9. 9. Using ATP to do work? A working muscle recycles over 10 million ATPs per second <ul><li>Can’t store ATP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too unstable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only used in cell that produces it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only short term energy storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates & fats are long term energy storage </li></ul></ul></ul>ATP ADP + P work Whoa ! Pass me the glucose & oxygen ! Adenosine Di Phosphate Adenosine Tri Phosphate
    10. 10. A Body’s Energy Budget eat food synthesis (building) storage ATP • resting energy (base level) • activity • temperature control { • growth • reproduction • repair { • glycogen (animal starch) • fat {
    11. 11. What if oxygen is missing? <ul><li>Can’t complete aerobic respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alcohol fermentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>yeast </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glucose  ATP + CO 2 + alcohol </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make beer, wine, bread </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lactic acid fermentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bacteria, animals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glucose  ATP + lactic acid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bacteria make yogurt </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>animals feel muscle fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>but only make a little bit of ATP ! O 2
    12. 12. 2007-2008 Got the energy… Ask Questions !!