ARCHES AND ITS TYPES

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ARCHES AND ITS TYPES

  1. 1. A BELL ARCH IS A SEMICIRCULAR ARCH, OFTEN CARVED FROM ONE PIECE OF STONE, WHICH RESTS ON TWO ROUNDED CORBELS RESULTING IN A SHAPE SOMEWHAT SIMILAR TO A BELL. A BELL ARCH CAN ALSO BE CARVED FROM ONE PEICE OF STONE TO RESEMBLE A BELL Bell arch HISTORICAL BACKGROUND • IT IS FIRST SEEN UNDER ROMAN ARCHITECTUREAND THEIR IMPROVEMENTS IN THE USE OFCONCRETE AND BRICKS FACILITATED THE BUILDING OF MANY AQUEDUCTS THROUGHOUT THE EMPIRE. • E.G- AQUEDUCT OF SEGOVIAAND THE ELEVEN AQUEDUCTS IN ROME ITSELF. • IT WAS ALSO FOUND IN FIREPLACES WHERE ITS CLOSE RELATION TO THE CORBELLED HOOD PROJECTION BECOMES EVIDENT PRODUCED NUMEROUS BRIDGES. • IT PROBABLY FIRST OCCURS IN THE LOOPS OF THE BARBICAN INA FORM IDENTICAL TO CAERNAVON CASTLE, AND SUBSEQUENTLY IN MULTIPLICITY OF OTHER NARROW LIGHTS THROUGHOUT THE CASTLE IN WORK UP UNTIL THE 19TH CENTURY.
  2. 2. • NAME OF THE ARCH- BELL ARCH • NAME OF THE BUILDING-: OLD BOYS LODGE • LOCATION OF THE ARCH-: IN THE CORRIDOR TOWARDS PAVILLION SIDE STEP OF CONSTRUCTION: • O IS TAKEN AS THE CENTRE TO DRAW A CIRCLE. • THIS CIRCLE FORMS THE ABOVE PART OF THE ARCH. • AFTER THAT IT IS SHOULDERED.
  3. 3. OGEE FOUR-CENTERED ARCH • A STYLE OF ARCH USED PRIMARILY IN BRITAIN DURING THE 14TH CENTURY. • THIS OGEE IS CHARACTERISED BY A FOUR-CENTRED DESIGN; TWO CENTRES OUTSIDE THE ARCH AND TWO INSIDE, PRODUCING A SINUOUS, COMPOUND CURVE, PART CONVEX AND PART CONCAVE. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND • OGEE FOUR CENTERED ARCH ORIGINED AT THE SAME TIME AS THAT OF OGEE THREE CENTERED ARCH. • OGEE FOUR CENTEREDARCHES WERE A FEATURE OF ENGLISH GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN THE LATER THIRTEENTH CENTURY SIMILAR TO OGEE FOUR CENTERED ARCH. • IN PRACTICE THIS PRODUCES A VAGUELY ORIENTAL ARCH, NARROWING TO A POINT AT THE TOP. THE OGEE CURVE IS CREATED USING BY THE UNION OF A CONCAVE AND A CONVEX ARCH.THE OGEE ARCH IS GOTHIC IN DESIGN.
  4. 4. STEP OF CONSTRUCTION: 1. DRAW SPAN OF THE ARCH. DIVIDE IT INTO 3 PARTS. 2. TAKING THE 2ND AND THE 3RD POINTS AS CENTRE, DRAW ARCS AS MARKED IN GREEN DOTTED LINE. 3. NOW, DRAW TWO 60 ANGLES FROM C AND GET THE POINTS E AND F. • NAME OF THE ARCH-: OGEE FOUR- CENTERED ARCH • NAME OF THE BUILDING-: REGISTRAR OFFICE, AMU • LOCATION OF THE ARCH-: CONTROLLER OFFICE 4. TAKING E AS THE CENTRE AND EP AS THE RADIUS, DRAW ARCS. REPEAT THE SAME WITH F AS THE CENTRE. YOU WILL GET D, CONSTRUCTED IS THREE CENTERED OGEE ARCH.
  5. 5. OGEE THREE-CENTERED ARCH • A STYLE OF ARCH USED PRIMARILY IN BRITAIN DURING THE 14TH CENTURY. • THIS OGEE ARCH IS CHARACTERISED BY A THREE-CENTRED DESIGN; TWO CENTRES OUTSIDE THE ARCH AND ONE INSIDE, PRODUCING A SINUOUS, COMPOUND CURVE, PART CONVEX AND PART CONCAVE. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND • IN ARCHITECTURE, THE PRINCIPAL USE OF THE TERM IS TO DESCRIBE AN ARCH COMPOSED OF TWO OGEES, MIRRORED LEFT-TO-RIGHT AND MEETING AT AN APEX. • OGEE ARCHES WERE A FEATURE OF ENGLISH GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN THE LATER THIRTEENTH CENTURY. • IN PRACTICE THIS PRODUCES A VAGUELY ORIENTAL ARCH, NARROWING TO A POINT AT THE TOP.
  6. 6. STEP OF CONSTRUCTION: • USING RULER AND COMPASSES, CONSTRUCT A SEMI-CIRCLE ON A HORIZONTAL SPAN, AB. • TAKING C AS THE CENTRE AND AC AS THE RADIUS DRAW A SEMICIRCLE WHERE AC_QCPC. • NOW, DRAW TWO 60 ANGLES FROM C AND DRAW PERPENDICULAR LINES FROM X AND Y TO GET THE POINTS E AND F RESP. • NAME OF THE ARCH-: OGEE THREE CENTERED ARCH • NAME OF THE BUILDING-: ENGINEERING HALL FOR GIRLS, AMU • LOCATION OF THE ARCH-: ON THE FACÇADE OF THE BUILDING Q • TAKING E AS THE CENTRE AND EP AS THE RADIUS, DRAW ARCS. REPEAT THE SAME WITH F AS THE CENTRE AND GET D, CONSTRUCTED IS THREE CENTERED OGEE ARCH.
  7. 7. POINTED MULTIFOIL ARCH THE ARCH IS AN AMALGATION OF TWO TYPES POINTED ARCH MULTIFOIL ARCH A POINTED ARCH IS WITH A POINTED APEX AND A MULTIFOIL WITH A NUMBER OF FOILS OR LEAVES. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND THE CONCEPT OF POINTED MULTIFOIL ARCH CAME FROM TWO DIFFERENT ARCHES • POINTED ARCH • MULTIFOIL ARCH THE USE OF POINTED ARCH WAS STARTED IN 6TH CENTURY IN AL AQSA MOSQUE (780 AD,EUROPE) , UKHAIDUR PALACE (778 AD, IRAQ) RAMLAH CISTERN (789 AD) AND JUSSAQ AL KHAQANI PALACE (836 AD) . WHEREAS IN ORDER TO COPE UP WITH RISING HEIGHTS IN THE GREAT MOSQUE OF CORDOBA , AN MPRESSIVE METHOD CONSISTING OF INTERSECTCTING ARCHES;MULTFOIL ARCH WAS INTRODUCED IN YEAR 987 AD. LATER THE TWO TECHNIQUES WERE AMALGAMATEDTO GIVE WHAT WE KNOW AS POINTED MULTIFOIL ARCH.
  8. 8. NAME OF THE BUILDING – S.S HALL LOCATION OF THE ARCH – ON THE TERRACE OF THE FAMOUS STRACHEY HALL. . STEPS TO construction • A SEMI CIRCLE OR A LANCET ARCH IS DRAWN FIRST • ON EQUAL INTERSEPTS,POINTS ARE MARKED. • SEMI CIRCLE IS DRAWN ON THESE POINTS • FOR THE POINTED APPEARENCE ,OGEE THREE • CENTERED OR FOUR CENTERED ARCH TECHNIQUE • IS USED. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -SPAN = 7O CM ---------------------RISE=30CM DEPTH =15 CM
  9. 9. SHOULDERED ARCH A SPANNING MEMBER CONSISTING OF A STRAIGHT LINTEL CARRIED ON CORBELS PROJECTING INTO THE OPENING AND USU. CUT INTO HOLLOW CURVES UNDER THEIR PROJECTING ENDS. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND THE HISTORY OF THIS ARCH HAS FADED AND IT IS NOT KNOWN AS TO WHEN AND WHERE WAS THIS ARCH FIRST USED. HOWEVER IT IS WAS FREQUENTLY USED SINCE 13TH AND 14TH CENTURIES THUS CAN BE SAID THAT THE ARCH MARKED ITS UPHEAVAL IN THE LATE 12TH CENTURY. ALSO KNOWN AS CAERNAVON ARCH DUE TO ITS FREQUENT USE IN THE CAERNAVON CASTLE.
  10. 10. NAME OF BUILDING: PLANT PATHOLOGY, IN THE VICINITY OF ZOOLOGICAL DEPT. , A.M.U. LOCATION OF ARCH IN THE BUILDING : OVER THE TWO ENTRANCE TO THE BUILDING WITH THE REPITION IN THE CORRIDOR. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION : -------------------------------------------- A SPAN = 144 cm BAB=115 cm C1 C2 RISE=27CM • DIVIDE THE SPAN INTO FOUR PARTS • TAKE POINTS C1 AND C2 TO LEFT AND RIGHT SIDE OF THE SUPPORT, TO DRAW AN ARC ON BOTH SIDE AT RIGHT ANGLE. • OFFEST FROM POINT A AND DRAW A LINE PARALLEL TO SPRINGING LINE.
  11. 11. JACK ARCH IT IS A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION THAT PROVIDES SUPPORT AT OPENINGS IN THE MASONRY , OTHER NAMES ARE FLAT ARCH AND STRAIGHT ARCH. UNLIKE OTHERS, THEY ARE NOT SEMICIRCULAR BUT FLAT AND ARE USED UNDER THE SAME CIRCUMSTANCES AS LINTELS. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND • IN THE PERIOD OF 18TH CENTURY , JACK ARCH WAS DISCOVERED IN THE RUINS OF BABYLONIA. ARCHEOLOGISTS ESTIMATE THAT THE ARCH WAS CONSTRUCTED ABOUT THE YEAR 1400 B.C BUILT OF WELL-BAKED ,CIGAR SHAPED BRICKS AND LAID WITH CLAY MORTAR , THIS ARCH IS PROBABLY THE OLDEST KNOWN . • ACCORDING TO HILTON 1997 , JACK ARCH CONSTRUCTION ORIGINATED IN U.K IN THE EARLY PART OF THE 19TH CENTURY.THE RECORDED STRUCTURE WAS BUILT IN 1801. THIS FORM OF CONSTRUCTION ALLOWED SHORT TO MEDIUM SPAN STRUCTURE TO BE BUILT WITH A MUCH SHALLOWER DEPTH THA WITH MASONRY.
  12. 12. NAME OF BUILDING: BIOCHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT LOCATION OF ARCH IN THE BUILDING : OVER THE LINTEL OF THE DOOR IN THE BUILDING STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION : •DRAW A LINE PASSING THROUGH THE CENTRE OF SPRINGING LINE, THIS LINE REPRESENTS THE CENTRE OF THE ARCHES KEY AND DIVIDE THE ARCH INTO TWO SYMMETRICAL HALVES. • FROM C , MAKE THE LINES OF VOUSSOIRS ACCORDING THE DESIRED THICKNESS OF VOUSSOIRS. ---------------------------------------------SPAN = 90 CM ---------------------------------------- C DEPTH=460 CM
  13. 13. SEGMENTAL ARCH SEGMENTAL ARCH IS AN ARCH IN WHICH THE CURVE IS LESS THAN SEMICIRCULAR SEGMENT OF A CIRCLE. A SHALLOW ARCH , LESS THAN A SEMICIRCLE. WHEN A SEGMENTAL ARCH IS DESIGNED PROPERLY, IT CAN BE STRUCTURALLY VERY IMPORTANT. • IN THE LATE MIDDLE AGES THE SEGMETAL ARCH WAS INTRODUCED. • A CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH OCCURRED WHEN A CHINESE ENGINEER WAS THE FIRST TO REALISZE THAT AN RCH DID NOT HAVE TO BE SEMICIRCULAR. A BRIDGE COULD BE BUILT WHICH WAS BASED NOT ON THE TRDITIONAL SEMICIRCLE ARCH BUT ON WHAT IS KNOWN AS SEGMENTAL ARCH. • THE GREAT STONE BRIDGE SPANNING THE RIVER CHIAO SHUI IS THE WORLD’S FIRST SEGMENTAL ARCH BRIDGE. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND : • THE SEGMENTAL ARCH WAS FIRST BUILT BY THE ROMANS WHO REALISED THAT AN ARCH IN A BRIDGE DID NOT HAVE TO BE SEMICIRCLE, SUCH AS IN ALCONETAR BRIDGE OR PONTE SAN LORENZO. • THEY WERE ALSO ROUTINELY USED IN HOUSE CONSTRUCTION AS IN OSTIA ANTICA.
  14. 14. NAME OF THE BUIDING: SIR SYED HOUSE LOCATION OF THE ARCH: AT THE BACKSIDE VERANDAH OF THE S. S HOUSE. STEP OF CONSTRUCTION: • THE SEGMENTAL ARCH IS SO CALLED BECAUSE IT FORMS A SEGMENT OF CIRCLE. • DRAWING OF SEGMENTAL ARCH: • DRAW OUT THE SPING LINE AND A PERPINDICULAR HEIGHT LINE AT THE SPRINGLINE’S MIDPOINT. • DRAW A CHORD FROM A TO POINT B. • DRAW A PERPINDICULAR LINE FROM THE MIDPOINT OF THE LINE AB THAT EXTENDS BELOW THE CENTRE OF THE SPRIGLINE. • FIND POINT D BY EXTENDING THE HEIGHT LINE BELOW THE SPRING LINE.
  15. 15. DROP ARCH • THE DROP ARCH HAS TWO CENTRES AND RADII LESS THAN THE SPAN. IF THE RADII AND CENTRES ARE EQUAL TO THE SPAN THEY ARE CALLED EQUILATERAL ARCH. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND • IT WAS FIRST CONSTRUCTED IN THE GOTHIC PERIOD. • IT WAS FOUNDED IN ENGLAND IN FIRST HALF OF 16TH CENTURY IN THE TUDOR MODIFICATION OF GOTHIC ARCH. • IN OBLONG VAULTING COMPARTEMEMTS OF THE LATE GOTHIC VAULTS, WHICH OFTENHAD WINDOWS IN THE NAVE WALL CROWNED WITH POINED ARCHES OF EQUILATERAL OR, IN EARLY TUDOR TIMES, EVEN OF THE DROP ARCH FORM,THE DIAGONAL AND TRANVERSE RIBS HAD TO BE SRUCK FROM FOUR CENTRES IN ORDER TO ACCOMMODATE THEIR HEIGHT TO THAT OF THE WNDOW. • DROP ARCH IS A POINTED ARCH HAVING RADII OF LENGTH LESS THAN THE SPAN. • IT IS ALSO CALLED AS SURBASED ARCH WHICH IS AN ARCH HAVING A RISE OF LESS THAN HALF ITS SPAN.
  16. 16. • NAME OF BUILDING: • SIR SYED HALL • LOCATION OF THE ARCH: • WINDOWS OF S.S HALL STEP OF CONSTRUCTION: • A DROP ARCH OR GOTHIC ARCH CAN BE SET OUT FROM AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE. • THE CURVES ARE TAKEN AS AN ARC ON EITHER SIDE, MEETING WITH A POINT AT THE TOP. • IN THIS GEOMETRY THE KEYSTONE IS CONCAVE, WITH AN INTENDED POINT AT THE BASE, UNLESS IT IS WITTED AS A WEDGE COMING DOWN TO A POINT AT THE TOP OF THE ARCH. • THE ARCH GEOMETRY CAN BE VARIED BY USING A TALLER OR SHORTER TRIANGLE FOR A TALLER ARCH OR SQUAT. • THE LOCATION OF THE CENTRE OF THE RADIUS FOR THE VOUSSOIR JOINTS IS MOVED TO SUIT THE CURVE. • THE RADIAL LINES ARE GENERATED ON THE FAR SIDE OF THE ARCH OPENING. • DROP ARCH HAS ITS RADIUS SHORTER THAN THE ARCH SPAN. IT FOLLOWS ASHAPE GENERATED BY CIRCLES HALF THE ARCH WIDTH, MEETING AN RC FOR THE CENTRE PORTION, WHICH STEMS FROM A COMMON TANGENT WITH THE SMALLER CIRCLE ON EACH SIDE.
  17. 17. LANCET ARCH HISTORICAL BACKGROUND • ONE OF THE DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IS THE POINTED. ARCHES OF A SIMILAR TYPE WERE USED IN THE NEAR EAST IN PRE-ISLAMIC AS WELL AS ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE BEFORE THEY WERE STRUCTURALLY EMPLOYED IN MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE. IT IS THOUGHT BY SOME ARCHITECTURAL HISTORIANS THAT THIS WAS THE INSPIRATION FOR THE USE OF THE POINTED ARCH IN FRANCE, IN OTHERWISE ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS. • POINTED ARCHES WERE MOST OFTEN USED BY BUILDERS OF GOTHIC-STYLE ARCHITECTURE. THE ADVANTAGE TO USING A POINTED ARCH, RATHER THAN A CIRCULAR ARCH, IS THAT THE ARCH ACTION IN A POINTED ARCH PRODUCES LESS THRUST AT THE BASE. THIS INNOVATION ALLOWED FOR TALLER AND MORE CLOSELY SPACED OPENINGS, TYPICAL OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.
  18. 18. Step of CONSTRUCTION 1. D C IS THE GIVEN SPAN. 2. BISECT DC IN E, MAKE CB AND DA EQUAL TO EC OR ED. 3. B AS CENTRE WITH DB AS RADIUS, DESCRIBE THE ARC DF. 4. A AS CENTRE, DESCRIBE THE ARC CF, AND THE ARCH IS COMPLETE. NAME OF THE BUILDING: THEOLOGY DEPARTMENT ,AMU LOCATION : IN THE WINDOW OF MOSQUE
  19. 19. POINTED HORSESHOE ARCH . HISTORICAL BACKGROUND POINTED HORSE SHOE ARCH WAS SOMETIME USED IN STICK STYLE & QUEEN ANNE STYLE BUILDINGS. BOTH ARE SINGLE STORY BUILDINGS WITH PORCHES SURROUNDING THEM. IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS MOORISH ARCH. AND EMBLEMATIC OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE. IT WAS FROM PRE-ISLAMIC SYRIA FORM IN FOURTH CENTURY. IT WAS IN VISIGOTHIC SPAIN & NORTH AFRICA. THESE ARCHES SEEM TO BILLOW OUT LIKE SAILS BLOWN BY THE WIND,& THEY CONTRIBUTE GREATLY TO THE LIGHT & AIRY EFFECT OF THE INTERIORS. THE RIBS WITH POINTED ARCH BECAME THE FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURE ELEMENTS OF A NEW & REVOLUTIONARY ARCHITECTURE SYSTEM. POINTED ARCHES ARE MADE BY FORMING EACH SIDE OF THE ARCH FROM A DIFFERENT CENTRE POINT ,THE GREATER THE DISTANCE BW THE TWO POINTS THE SHARPER THE POINT
  20. 20. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION:- •CONSTRUCT THE COLUMN OF HEIGHT 200CM OR MORE . •COLUMN INCLUDE THE BASE, THE SHAFT & THE CAPITAL WHICH MUST BE BEAUTIFULLY CARVED. •THE WIDTH OF THE SHAFT & BASE SHOULD BE 30CM & 50CM IF THE HEIGHT OF COLUMN IS 200CM. •THE SPAN BETWEEN THE TWO COLUMNS IS 160CM. •CONSTRUCT A RECTANGLE OF 40X80CM OVER THE SPAN OF TWO COLUMNS ON THE SCALE OF 1:20, AS THE CENTRE'S C1 & C2. •CONSTRUCT AN ARC FROM THE UPPER CENTRE C1 ON THE OPPOSITE COLUMN & SAME AS C2. •BOTH ARCHES MEET AT A COMMON POINT AT THE APEX. •HENCE POINT HORSE SHOE CONTRUCT • Name of the building: SS HALL • LOCATION:- SIR SYED HALL
  21. 21. RELIEVING ARCH HISTORICA BACKGROUND THE EARLIEST EXAMPLE IS FOUND IN THE GREAT PYRAMID IN THE ENTRANCE PASSAGE TO THE TOMB.IT CONSISTED OF TWO STONES RESTING ONE AGAINST THE OTHER .. AN ARCH BUILT OVER A LINTEL TO BDISTRIBUTE THE WEIGHT OF THE WALL ABOVE. OTHER EXAMPLE ARE IN GATE MYCENAE,GREECE WHERE THE STONES LAID IN HORIZONTAL COURSES ONE PROJECTING OVER THE OTHER LEFT A TRIANGULAR HOLLOW SPACE ABOVE A LINTEL
  22. 22. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION •CONSTRUCT THE COLUMN OF HEIGHT 200CM OR MORE .IT INCLUDE THE BASE, THE SHAFT & THE CAPITAL . •THE WIDTH OF THE SHAFT SHOULD BE 30CM. •THE SPAN BETWEEN THE TWO COLUMNS IS 160CM. •CONSTRUCT A FLAT ARCH ON THESE TWO COLUMNS THAT ACTS LIKE A LINTEL OVER IT. •THEN AGAIN CONTRUCT ANY ARCH OVER THE FLAT ARCH SO THAT THE LOAD CAN BE DISTRIBUTED OVER THE FLAT ARCH OR A LINTEL.AND THIS IS THE FUNCTION OF A RELIEVING ARCH.THEN, •CONSTRUCT A RECTANGLE OF 40X80CM OVER THE SPAN OF TWO COLUMNS ON THE SCALE OF 1:20, AS THE CENTRE'S C1 & C2. •CONSTRUCT AN ARC FROM THE UPPER CENTRE C1 ON THE OPPOSITE COLUMN & SAME AS C2. •BOTH ARCHES MEET AT A COMMON POINT AT THE KEY STONE. Name of the building: K.A NIZAMI QURANIC CENTER LOCATION:- QURANIC CENTRE
  23. 23. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ONE OF THE EARLIEST FLAT ARCH IS TO BE SEEN AT THE DEIR-AL- ZAFARAN MONASTERY IN TURKEY NEAR MARDIN. THE FLOOR OF THE CHAPEL AND THE ROOF OF THE CRYPT IS FORMED FROM A FLAT ARCH AND IS SAID TO HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED IN THE CENTURIES B.C. THE SO CALLED FLAT ARCH CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEM THAT WAS COMMONLY USED TO ENCASE SHORT SPAN STEEL BEAM OR STRINGER BRIDGES IN NEW HAMPSHIRE DURING THE 1ST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY HAS ITS ORIGIN IN MID TO LATE 19TH CENTURY FIREPROOF MILL AND FACTORY CONSTRUCTION. DURING THE 1870S AND PERHAPS EARLIER VARIOUS TYPES OF FLAT ARCH MASONRY FLOOR SYSTEMS INCORPORATING I BEAMS & CONCRETE WERE EMPLOYED FOR FIREPROOF BUILDING & FACTORY CONSTRUCTION. THE ARCHES WERE FORMED WITH FLAT OR CORRUGATED SHEET METAL BRICK OR WOOD FORM WORK. FLAT ARCH SO NAMED AS THE APPARENT SHAPE OF THE ARCH IS FLAT. THEY ARE USED OVER OPENING OF DOOR OR WINDOW. UNDER SAME CIRCUMSTANCES AS LINTELS THEY ARE COMPOSED OF INDIVIDUAL MASONRY ELEMENTS CUT OR FORMED INTO A WEDGE SHAPE THE FLAT ARCH IS FOUND COMPARATIVELY WEAK AND THEY ARE USED ONLY FOR LIGHT LOADS AND FOR SPANS UP TO 1.50M. Flat Arch
  24. 24. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION •DRAW A HORIZONTAL LINE FROM SIDE TO SIDE WHICH IS KNOWN AS SPRINGING LINE. •BELOW THIS DRAW THE RECTANGULAR OPENING WHICH THE ARCH WILL SPAN. •FROM THE CENTRE OF THIS SPRINGING LINE IS DRAWN A VERTICAL LINE (CENTRE LINE). THIS LINE REPRESENTS THE CENTRE OF ARCH’S KEY & DIVIDES THE ARCH INTO TWO SYMMETRICAL HALVES. •IT IS IMPORTANT TO LABEL THESE LINES AS DURING DRAWING THE NUMBER OF PARALLEL LINES CAN BE CONFUSING ESPECIALLY IF ERRORS NECESSITATE REDRAWING. •DETERMINING THE POINT OF INTERSECTION OF THE CENTRE LINE IS OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE TO ENSURE THE EXTRADOS IS THE RIGHT LENGTH. THIS IS DONE BY MAKING A LINE INCLINED ON THE SPRINGING LINE AT AN ANGLE OF 60 DEGREE EXTENDING BOTH THE SIDES SO THAT SKEWBACK IS AT AN ANGLE OF 10 DEGREE. THUS AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE IS FORMED WITH ONE SIDE AS INTRADOS.THE LENGTH OF EXTRADOS SO OBTAINED IS VERY IMPORTANT TO ACCOMMODATE ALL THE VOISSOIRS & THE KEY. •FROM THIS CENTRE POINT THE COURSE IS DIVIDED INTO EQUAL NUMBER OF VOISSOIRS & THE KEY. HENCE FLAT ARCH IS DRAWN. LOCATION QURANIC CENTRE ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY ALIGARH
  25. 25. ELLIPTICAL ARCH HISTORICAL BACKGROUND IT MAY BE DOUBTED THAT WHETHER ANY TRUE ELLIPTICAL ARCHES EVER OCCUR OTHERWISE THAN ACCIDENTLY. THE ORIGIN OF THE ARCH IS NOT KNOWN. IT WAS LARGELY USED BY THE ASSYRIANS AND BY THE EGYPTIANS AS WELL, AT A VERY EARLY DATE: BUT FOR SOME REASON THEY DID NOT INTRODUCE UT INTO THEIR GREATEST WORKS, THE PRACTICAL INTRODUCTION AND USE OF THE ARCH WAS DUE TO THE ROMANS.
  26. 26. • NAME OF THE BUILDING : FACULTY OF THEOLOGY, AMU •LOCATION : IN PORTICO SPAN-3200 1040 360 INRADOS EXTRADOS KEYSTONE SPRINGING POINT SPRINGING LINE STEP OF CONSTRUCTION • FIRSTLY, DRAW A SPRINGING LINE. • DIVIDE IT INTO FOUR EQUAL PARTS. • WITH THE POINTS 2 AND 4 AS CENTER, DRAW A ARC WITH RADIUS EQUAL TO S/4 (S = SPAN) • DRAW TWO LINES AT 45 DEGREE FROM THE POINT 2 AND 4. THE POINT WHERE THEY INTERSECT IS THE CENTER-3. • NOW FROM THIS CENTER-3( WITH RADIUS EQUAL TO R IN FIG.) JOIN THE TWO PREVIOUS ARCS. • FOLLOW SAME WITH OTHER END OF BOTH PIERS
  27. 27. BULLSEYE ARCH THEATRES AS OPENINGS DATING IT BACK TO 4TH CENTURY C.E. , THE OTHER STATES ROMAN BAPTISTERIES AS THE INITIALS WITH THIS ARCH AS THE FRONT CENTRAL STONE BEARING ORNAMENTATION WITH DATES AROUND 6TH CENTURY C.E. BUT BOTH THE IDEAS SUPPORTS ITS INITIALISATION IN ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. • DESCRIPTION: IT IS AN ATTRACTIVE FEATURE OF EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURE AND ID STILL VERY POPULAR. VARIATIONS IN NUMBER, MATERIAL AND EMBOSS OF KEYSTONES ARE THE MAIN ORNAMENTAL SCOPES OF THIS ARCH. DIAMETERS OF THE ARCH MAY BE QUITE LARGE DEPENDING UPON THE THICKNESS OF THE WALL. IN TYPICAL DOMESTIC SITUATIONS BETWEEN 700 TO 1000MM. IN MOST OF THE CASES THE WOULD COME BONDED TO A STEEL CAVITY LINTEL WITH INNER LEAF FULLY SUPPORTED SIMPLIFYING THE SUPPORT FOR THE INNER WALL AND FORMING PERFECT FRAME FOR THE FENESTRATION. ORIGIN: ROME IN LATE 1ST MILLENNIUM HISTORICAL BACKGROUND : THERE ARE 2 • CONFLICTING NOTIONS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE BULLSEYE ARCH. WHILE ONE SCHOOL SAYS THAT THESE HAVE THEIR DEEPEST ROOTS IN THE
  28. 28. • NAME OF THE BUILDING: • KENNEDY AUDITORIUM LOCATION: A.M.U. CAMPUS, • ALIGARH STEP OF CONSTRUCTION: • ON PAPER: TAKING A POINT AS • CENTRE AND DESIRED RADIUS A • CIRCLE FOR INTRADOS IS DRAWN. • ANOTHER CIRCLE OF LARGER DIAMETER • IS DRAWN FOR EXTRADOS. • VOUISSURES ARE SET IN CONVERGING • MANNER. IN PRACTICAL: A CIRCLE IS DRAWN TAKING A POINT AS CENTRE AND GIVING IT’S RADIUS. • DIAMETER OF INTRADOS 410 MM. • DIAMETER OF EXTRADOS= 850MM • FACE DEPTH=220MM • NO. OF VOISSOURS USED=30 • NAME OF THE ARCH: BULLSEYE
  29. 29. HORSE SHOE SHAPED ARCH ORIGIN: PRE-ISLAMIC SYRIA 4TH CENTURY C.E. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND IT IS AN EMBLEMATIC ARCH OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE. THESE WERE INITIALLY CONSTRUCTED IN VISIGOTHIC SPAIN. IMPORTANT INITIAL STRUCTURES ARE THE BAPTISTERY OF MAR YA’QUB(ST. JACOB) AT NISIBIN. BUT THE CHARACTERSTIC FORM OF THIS ARCH EVOLVED IN SPAIN AND NORTH AFRICA. PRIOR TO THE MUSLIM INVASION OF SPAIN, THE VISIGOTHS USED THEM AS ONE OF THEIR MAIN ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES. THE VISIGOTHIC FORM WAS ADOPTED AND DEVELOPED BY THE UMAYYADS WHO ACCENTUATED THE CURVATUR OF THE HORSE SHOE AND ADDED THEALTERNATING COLORS TO ACCENTUATE ITS SHAPE . • DESCRIPTION: HORSE-SHOE ARCHES CAN TAKE POINTED, ROUND OR LOBED FORM. IT IS USED AS AN EMBLEM OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE. IT IS MOST WIDELY USED FOR ENTRANCE OPENINGS.
  30. 30. NAME OF THE BUILDING: WEST WING SIR SYED HALL NORTH LOCATION: A.M.U. CAMPUS, ALIGARH STEP OF construction A POINT IS TAKEN ABOVE THE SPRINGING LINE AND DESIRED RADIUS IS TAKEN SPANNING THE SPACE WITH A RADIAL CURVE. . NAME OF THE ARCH: HORSE SHOE
  31. 31. EQUILATERAL ARCH IT IS THOUGHT BYSOME ARCHITECTURAL HISTORIANS THAT THIS WAS THE INSPIRATION FOR THE USE OF THE POINTED ARCH IN FRANCE, IN OTHERWISE ROMANESQUEBUILDINGS, AS AT AUTUN CATHEDRAL. CONTRARY TO THE DIFFUSIONIST THEORY, IT APPEARS THAT THERE WAS SIMULTANEOUSLY A STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION TOWARDS THE POINTED ARCH, FOR THEPURPOSE OF VAULTING SPACES OF IRREGULAR PLAN, OR TO BRING TRANSVERSE VAULTS TO THE SAME HEIGHT AS DIAGONAL VAULTS. THIS LATTER OCCURS ATDURHAM CATHEDRAL IN THE NAVE AISLES IN 1093. POINTED ARCHES ALSO OCCUR EXTENSIVELY IN ROMANESQUE DECORATIVE BLIND ARCADING, WHERESEMI- CIRCULAR ARCHES OVERLAP EACH OTHER IN A SIMPLE DECORATIVE PATTERN, AND THE POINTS ARE ACCIDENTAL TO THE DESIGN. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND THE BASIC GOTHIC ARCH BEGINS SIMPLY ENOUGH WITH A STRAIGHT, HORIZONTAL LINE.ONE OF THE DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IS THE POINTED OR OGIVAL ARCH. ARCHES OF A SIMILAR TYPE WERE USED IN THE NEAREAST IN PREISLAMIC AS WELL AS ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE BEFORE THEY WERE STRUCTURALLY EMPLOYED IN MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE.
  32. 32. LOCATION: QURANIC CENTER, SIR SYED HOUSE, AMU, ALIGARH STEP OF CONSTRUCTION • CONSTRUCT THE BASELINE A-B, AND EXTEND YOUR COMPASS OUT TO THE EXACT SAME LENGTH. WITH YOUR COMPASS NEEDLE AT POINT B, CONSTRUCT ARC A-C. •WITH YOUR COMPASS NEEDLE AT POINT A, CONSTRUCT ARC B-C.
  33. 33. TRIANGULAR ARCH •SIMPLE SINGLE PIECE STONE LAID TOGETHER. •THE SPAN IS LIMITED BY THE SIZE OF THE AVAILABLE MATERIAL. •FORMED BY TWO LARGE DIAGONAL STONES THAT MUTUALLY SUPPORT EACH OTHER TO SPAN AN OPENING. STEP OF CONSTRUCTION DRAW THE SPAN OF THE ARCH WITH TWO PIERS AND CONSTRUCT AN EQUILATERAL ARCH OVER THE TWO PIERS AND WIDTH OF THE ARCH BEING THE SAME AS THE WIDTH OF THE PIERS.
  34. 34. INDICATED BY A PREFIX: TREFOIL—3, QUATREFOIL—4, ETC., AND MULTIFOIL—MANY.IT WAS IN SAMARRA IN IRAQ THAT THE FIRST MULTIFOIL ARCH WAS DESIGNED BEFORE PASSING INTO THE REST OF THE MUSLIM LANDS INCLUDING SPAIN AND SICILY, AND THEN TO EUROPE. ITS FIRST APPEARANCE WAS IN THE WINDOWS OF AL-MUTAWAKKIL MOSQUE, BUILT BETWEEN 848 AND 849 IN SAMARRA. THESE WINDOWS WERE ON THE ENCLOSURE AND SPANNED BY CINQFOIL ARCHES. THE MULTIFOIL ARCH REACHED NORTH AFRICA AND ANDALUSIA, WHERE IT BECAME VERY POPULAR, DECORATING MOST MOORISH BUILDINGS, ESPECIALLY CORDOBA MOSQUE. FROM THE 10"‘ CENTURY, EUROPEANS FELL IN LOVE WITH IT AND ADOPTED IT IN THEIR BUILDINGS, PLANS, AND ARTS. ITS MOST POPULAR USE WAS IN THE TREFOIL FORM WHICH SUITED THE CONCEPT OF TRINITY IN CHRISTIANITY. LIKE MANY OF THESE ARCHES, THOSE SEEN IN THE CORDOBA MOSQUE WERE THE MAIN INSPIRATION. MULTIFOIL ARCH HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A MULTIFOIL ARCH IS A STYLE OF ARCH THAT WAS AN ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENT IN THE MOORISH ARCHITECTURE OF AL- ANDALUS.THE MULTIFOIL ARCH DESIGN WAS INFLUENCED BY ISLAMIC ART AND ARCHITECTURE. EXAMPLES ARE FOUND IN THE MOORISH UMAYYAD CALIPHATEMOSQUEMAQSURAS AND ARCADES, THAT ARE LOCATED IN PRESENT DAY SPAIN.THE TERM IS FRENCH, "FOIL" MEANS "LEAF." THE NUMBER OF FOILS INVOLVED IS
  35. 35. LOCATION LEFT SIDE ENTRANCE GATE NEAR UNIVERSITY CIRCLE. STEP OF CONSTRUCTION •DRAW THE PRIMARY ARCH ON WHICH MULTIFOIL HAS TO BE CONSTRUCTED. •DRAW AN ARC CONCENTRIC TO THE INTRADOS INSIDE THE ARCH. MARK THE NO OF POINTS AT EQUAL INTERVALS EQUAL TO THE NO. OF FOILS TO BE CONSTRUCTED. •THEN SEMICIRCULAR ARC IS DRAWN OF RADIUS EXACTLY HALF THE DISTANCE B/W TWO POINTS AND MULTI FOILS ARE CONSTRUCTED.
  36. 36. ALSO KNOWN AS THE ROMAN ARCH, THE SEMICIRCULAR ARCH FORMS A HALF CIRCLE AND IS A MAJOR FEATURE OF ALL ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. A STRONG STRUCTURE, THIS ARCH IS OFTEN FOUND IN BRIDGES AND AQUEDUCTS. IT APPEARS A SIMPLE ARCH TO MANUFACTURE, AS EACH VOUSSOIR IS IDENTICAL IN TAPER TO ITS NEIGHBOUR. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND SEMICIRCULAR ARCHES AS THE NAME IMPLIES THIS TYPE OF ARCH IS IN THE SHAPE OF A SEMI CIRCLE. ANY LOADING PLACED UPON THE WALLING ABOVE THE ARCH WILL BE TRANSFERRED DOWN THROUGH THEARCH ONTO THE ABUTMENT. ARCHES WERE USED BY THE PERSIAN, HARAPPAN, EGYPTIAN, BABYLONIAN, GREEK AND ASSYRIAN CIVILIZATIONS FOR UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES SUCH AS DRAINS AND VAULTS, BUT THE ANCIENT ROMANS WERE THE FIRST TO USE THEM WIDELY ABOVE GROUND ALTHOUGH IT IS THOUGHT THAT ROMANS LEARNED IT FROM THE ETRUSCANS. THE SEMICIRCULAR ARCH DESIGN HAD BEEN USED BY THE ASSYRIANS AS EARLY AS 722 BC.
  37. 37. LOCATION: SIR SYED HALL NORTH, AMU, ALIGARH •ADJUST THE LINE TO THE TOP OF EACH COURSE AT THE CORNERS AND RUN IN BRICKWORK NORMALLY TO THE ARCH, CUTTING AS REQUIRED TO THE EXTRADOS OF THE ARCH. • REPEAT THE PROCEDURE UNTIL THE ARCH IS COMPLETE, ALWAYS RETAINING THE BALANCE BY BUILDING BOTH SIDES UP TOGETHER. THE KEY BRICK MUST BE LAID VERY CAREFULLY AND THE JOINTS WELL FILLED. • EASE THE CENTRE SLIGHTLY AS SOON AS THE ARCH IS COMPLETE, TO ALLOW THE JOINTS TO CONTRACT UNIFORMLY WHEN SETTING. • STRIKE THE ARCH CENTRE AFTER ALLOWING ADEQUATE TIME TO SET. JOINT THE SOFFIT OF THE ARCH. STEP OF CONSTRUCTION •PULL A LINE THROUGH THE CORNERS AND LAY THE FACE OF THE VOISSOIRS TO THE LINE. IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO RAISE THE LINE WHILST THE VOISSOIRS ARE BEING LAID. THE LINE CONTROLS THE FACE PLANE OF THE VOISSOIRS ONLY. • LEVEL EACH VOISSOIR AS IT IS LAID AND CHECK THAT IT IS LAID SQUARE ON THE ARCH CENTRE, AND THAT IT MEETS •LAY A FEW VOISSOIRS ON EACH SIDE TO AVOID PUSHING THE CENTRE OUT OF POSITION. ENSURE ALL JOINTS ARE TOTALLY FULL TO AVOID WEAKNESSES IN THE ARCH. THE MARKED SETTING OUT POINTS ON THE CENTRE. CHECK THAT THE BRICK RADIATESTO THE STRIKING POINT WITH A LINE .
  38. 38. SEMICIRCULAR ARCH THE CENTRE OF THE ARCH LIES ON THE SPRINGING LINE AND THE SHAPE OF THE CURVE OF ARCH IS SEMI-CIRCLE. AS THE SKEWBACK IS HORIZONTAL, THE THRUST TRANSFERRED TO THE ABUTMENT IS PERFECTLY IN VERTICAL DIRECTION HISTORICAL BACKGROUND USE OF SEMI-CICULAR ARCHES ROMAN ARCHES ENABLED THE ANCIENT ROMANS, TO BUILD BRIDGES, AQUEDUCTS, SEWERS, AMPHITHEATRES, AND , AS WELL AS TEMPLES AND PALACES. IT IS AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT IN THE MAGNIFICENT GOTHIC CATHEDRALS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. IT WAS APPLIED EXTENSIVELY TO DOORWAYS AND WINDOWS, AND IS AN ORNAMENT AS WELL AS A UTILITY. SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCHES IN THE COLOSSEUM THE BUILDING OF THE COLOSSEUM WAS STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY THE COMBINATION OF TWO OF THEIR GREAT INVENTIONS - CONCRETE AND SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCHES(VAULTED) ARCHES. THE COLOSSEUM HAD FOUR TIERS. THE CEILINGS OF THE PASSAGES AND CORRIDORS WHICH CIRCLED THE ARENA ON EACH TIER CONSISTED OF VAULTED AND SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCHES MADE OF CONCRETE.
  39. 39. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION •FIRST OF ALL 2 PILLARS ARE DRAWN OF APPROPRIATE HEIGHT AND THESE ARE JOINED WITH A STRAIGHT LINE. THIS INE IS KNOWN AS SPRINGING LINE. •TAKING MID POINT OF THIS SPRINGING LINE TO DRAW A SEMI CIRCLE, FROM INSIDE LINE AS WELL AS OUTSIDE LINE OF THE PILLARS •MAKE KEY STONE AND GIVE APPROPRIATE NUMBER OF VOUSSOIRS (WEDGE-SHAPED UNITS) •DO PROPER DIMENSIONING AND THE SEMI-CIRCULAR ARCH IS READY. LOCATION SIR SYED HALL(SOUTH)
  40. 40. PSEUDO FOUR CENTERED ARCH FOUR-CENTERED ARCHES ARE MOST OFTEN FOUND IN VICTORIAN ARCHITECTURE FOR A SIMPLE REASON: VICTORIAN ARCHITECTURE IS A BLEND OF NEO-CLASSICAL STYLES AND GOTHIC DESIGNS. AND THERE IS NO BETTER EXAMPLE OF GOTHIC REVIVAL ARCHITECTURE THAN A FOUR-CENTERED ARCH. THE FOUR-CENTERED ARCH IS OFTEN CALLED A ‘TUDOR ARCH’ BECAUSE OF IT’S ORIGIN IN JACOBEAN ARCHITECTURE. A VARIATION OF THE FOUR-CENTERED ARCH IS THE ‘PSEUDO FOUR-CENTERED ARCH.’ THIS TYPE OF ARCH IS OFTEN USED ON OPENINGS WITH A SHORT RISE. IN THIS VARIATION, THE LARGER ARCS THAT CREATE THE POINTED TOP ARE REPLACED WITH STRAIGHT LINES THAT ARE TANGENT TO THE OUTER CIRCULAR ARCS. A LOW ELLIPTICAL OR POINTED ARCH; USUALLY DRAWN FROM FOUR CENTERS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
  41. 41. •DRAW OUT THE SPRING LINE AND APERPENDICULAR HEIGHT LINE AT THE SPRINGLINE'S MIDPOINT. •FIND POINTS A AND B BY MEASURING IN FROM EACH END OF THE SPRING LINE THE DISTANCE OF THE DESIRED OUTER RADIUS. THEN DRAW QUARTER ARCS USING POINTS A AND B AS CENTERS •USING A STRAIGHT EDGE, DRAW LINES CONNECTING POINTS A AND B TO THETOP OF THE HEIGHT LINE. THEN LOCATE POINTS C AND D AT THE MIDPOINT OF EACH OF THESE LINES •FIND THE TANGENT POINTS, T1 AND T2, BY USING ARCS CENTERED ONPOINTS C AND D WITH A RADIUS OF AC/DB. •CLOSE UP THE TOP OF THE ARCH BY USING A STRAIGHT EDGE TO CONNECT POINTS T1 AND T2 TO THE TOP OF THE HEIGHT LINE. LOCATION VM HALL STEP OF CONSTRUCTION

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