"Vegetables"

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"Vegetables"

  1. 1. START
  2. 2. Vegetables are nothing but a term used for all plants / parts of plants that can be eaten raw, cooked or preserved in some form. DEFINITION EXAMPLES• Continental (Exotic) Vegetables: Continental vegetables include Artichoke, Asparagus, Endive, Leeks, Celery, Kale, Parsnip, Swede, Cardoon, Brussel Sprouts, Sage, etc• Indian Vegetables: Popular vegetables include Aubergine, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Cucumber, Lettuce, Marrow, Peas, Pumpkin, Spinach, Tomatoes, Capsicum, Rhubarb, Mustard Leaves, Horse-Radish, Turnips, Beetroot, Carrots, Onions, French Beans, Broad Beans, Corn, Mushroom, Ladies Finger, Potatoes, etc.
  3. 3. • As more and more people are embracing vegetarianism as a way of life, not only vegetables but its cookery also play a very important role.INTRODUCTION TO VEGETABLES AND ITS COOKERY • They are served in various forms: as accompaniments, garnishes, salads, hors d’oeuvres, bhajees, sookhi sabzi, curries, raitas, etc. • Vegetarian cooking demands a good knowledge of the principles of cookery and a high degree of skill. There is a lot of repetitive work entailed in the preparation and cooking of the same. There can be excessive amount of waste unless it is efficiently and economically prepared and cooked. • All the vegetables, particularly the green ones, are best when taken straight from the garden.
  4. 4. Vegetables can be classified in two ways for culinary purposes: 1. ON THE BASIS OF EDIBLE PARTS CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLES• Roots: They include Carrots, Horse-radish, Beetroot, Turnips, etc• Bulbous roots: They include Onions, Shallots, Leeks, Garlic, etc• Tubers: They include Potatoes, Jerusalem Artichokes, Kachaloo, etc• Flowers: They include Cauliflower, Brocolli, Globe Artichokes, etc• Leaves: They include Cabbage, Lettuce, Spinach, Watercress, Mustard Leaves, etc• Fruit: They include Cucumber, Tomatoes, Beans, Peas, Pulses, Pumpkin, tindas, Bottle Gourd, etc• Stem: They include Celery, Rhubarb, Seakale, chicory, Asparagus, etc
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETABLESVegetables can be classified in two ways for culinary purposes: 2. BROADLY • Root Vegetables • Leafy Vegetables • Other Vegetables
  6. 6. Any vegetable essentially has the following components or nutrients: 1. WATER COMPOSITION & NUTITIVE VALUEExcept for dried vegetables (such as legumes, etc), vegetableshave a high water content. The water content generally ranges between 70 – 90%.
  7. 7. COMPOSITION & NUTITIVE VALUE Any vegetable essentially has the following components or nutrients: 2. CARBOHYDRATES NOTE !!• Carbohydrates rank first in quantity among the other food nutrients present in vegetables. These may be present in form of starch, sugar, cellulose, pectic substances, etc. Starch is the chief nutrient of roots & tubers; sugar is the highest in beetroot• closely followed byof carbohydrates depend upon the part frameworkfrom The quantity carrots & turnips; cellulose (the fibrous of plant or roughage) becomes coarser and and theas the vegetable mature. – ripe or which the vegetable comes tougher degrees of maturity In some cases it is too tough to be eaten raw. Eg. Cabbage unripe.
  8. 8. COMPOSITION & NUTITIVE VALUE Any vegetable essentially has the following components or nutrients: 3. VITAMINS & MINERAL SALTSVegetables consist of a large amount of vitamins (generally vitamin C) and mineral salts (mainly calcium & iron) as compared to other foods and these are carried forward in their dishes as well.
  9. 9. COMPOSITION & NUTITIVE VALUE Any vegetable essentially has the following components or nutrients: 4. OTHER COMPONENTSThese have no food value, but are of great concern in vegetable cookery. They have an effect upon flavour, colour, and general palatability of the cooked product. These materials are: A. Flavouring Substances Many volatile and non-volatile organic acids including aromatic oils are chieflyresponsible for characteristic flavour and odour. Some are present in raw state and others develop when food in cooked.
  10. 10. COMPOSITION & NUTITIVE VALUE Any vegetable essentially has the following components or nutrients: 4. OTHER COMPONENTS These have no food value, but are of great concern in vegetable cookery. They have an effect upon flavour, colour, and general palatability of the cooked product. These materials are: B. PigmentsThe attractive and varied colours of vegetables are due to the presence of pigments distributed in plant tissues like chlorophyll (green) and caratenoid (red & yellow) pigments.
  11. 11. COMPOSITION & NUTITIVE VALUE Any vegetable essentially has the following components or nutrients: 4. OTHER COMPONENTSThese have no food value, but are of great concern in vegetable cookery. They have an effect upon flavour, colour, and general palatability of the cooked product. These materials are: C. Tannins Complex organic compounds are widely distributed in plants. They have astringent properties. Tannins of tannic salt form greenish-purple compound, which upon oxidation, turns brown.
  12. 12. • The quality of root vegetables is determined by their firmness and absence of blemishes. They should be heavy for their size. For instance, Carrot skin should be smooth and not wrinkled; Potatoes should be of regular size and free from earth; Onions should have a thin SELECTION OF VEGETABLES shiny skin and no signs of sprouting.• Green vegetables should be crisp, have a fresh, green colour appearance. If the ends of the stems are broken, they should snap off easily and the leaves should not be limp Cabbage should be compact and be heavy for its size; Cauliflower should be white, the flowerettes well formed and the leaves crisp; Spinach should be crisp with slender stalk ends, and the leaves large in size; Tomatoes should be bright red, firm, regular shaped with shiny skin; Beans should not be stringy and should break crisply under pressure; Pea pods should be plump; Brinjals should be light for their size, having a shiny and smooth skin; Lady’s finger should snap if the ends are broken; etc.

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