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Fruit and Vegetable Science
K. Jerome

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  1. 1. HERBS<br />
  2. 2. Expensive to buy<br />throw them away every year<br />Growing own herbs inexpensive, easy <br /> <br />
  3. 3. used for hundreds of years<br />Medicinal<br />Cosmetic<br />Culinary<br />
  4. 4. Herb Gardens<br />Formal<br />simple <br />knot gardens<br />French embroidery gardens <br />cottage and kitchen gardens<br />
  5. 5. Use in landscape<br />drought tolerant<br />Insect, disease resistant <br />
  6. 6. Use in landscape<br />Perennial border<br />beds devoted entirely to herbs<br />Pots<br />among vegetables and flowers<br />Windowsill<br />hanging baskets<br />window boxes<br />
  7. 7. Life Cycle<br />Annual: seed-bloom-seed in one growing season.<br />Perennial: grow from crown each year to produce foliage, flowers and seeds<br />Tender perennial: treated as an annual, brought indoors <br />
  8. 8. CULTURE<br />Easy to grow<br />few pests, diseases<br /> full day of sun ideal<br />Most grow well in four to six hours of sun <br />
  9. 9. CULTURE<br />Do well in most soils<br />Best flavors on dry, infertile <br />Tolerate dryness<br />If poorly drained, add organic matter<br /> <br />
  10. 10. CULTURE<br />Seldom need fertilizing<br />annual side dressing of compost<br />
  11. 11. Winter care<br />Cut back perennial herbs late <br />Remove annuals as soon as frost blackens leaves<br /> Three to four inches of mulch over perennial herbs after ground freezes<br /> <br />
  12. 12. Bringing indoors<br />Dig, pot about three weeks before first frost<br />Clay pots<br />drainage holes<br />
  13. 13. Bringing indoors<br />old nylon, cheesecloth<br />Up around pot<br />Tie around plant base (insects)<br />Set in sheltered spot in sun, no wind, keep watered<br />
  14. 14. Bringing indoors<br />After week, cut back drastically.<br />Before first frost (early to mid-October), bring in to sunny windowsill<br /> <br />
  15. 15. Bringing indoors<br />Candidates:<br /> thyme<br />lemon thyme<br />sage<br />oregano<br />chives<br /> <br />
  16. 16. Harvesting, Preserving, Storing<br />Harvesting specific to how will be used<br />basil – foliage<br />dill – flowers, seeds<br />chives – leaves, flowers<br />fennel - bulbs <br />
  17. 17. Harvesting, Preserving, Storing<br />foliage -just before flower buds form<br />leaves contain most concentrated oils<br />Flowering herb loses potency<br /> <br />
  18. 18. Harvesting, Preserving, Storing<br />gather herbs in early morning <br />Snip leaves as needed to cook<br />harvest larger quantities to preserve for winter <br />Cut with scissors just above leaf<br />remove no more than three quarters of plant<br />
  19. 19. Drying <br />away from direct sunlight<br />air circulation<br />
  20. 20. Drying<br />Rinse in cool water<br />Shake off or blot extra moisture<br />Tie stems firmly into bundle with rubber band<br />Place bundle in paper bag, gathering top of bag around the stems<br />Label, hang in dry place where the temperature doesn't get above 80 degrees <br />After two to four weeks, should be dry and crumbly.<br />
  21. 21. Drying<br />Alternative -<br />place small herbs, individual leaves on screens <br />Cover with paper towels or cheesecloth<br /> <br />
  22. 22. Drying<br />Heat in oven – 180 degrees, 3-4 hours, door open<br />Microwave – on paper towel, 1-3minutes in 10 second intervals<br />Commercial dehydrator – depends on herb<br />Shorter drying time<br />Must not cook  <br />
  23. 23. Storage<br />Once dried, can store for year in cool, dark <br />Keep leaves whole, crush when using them<br />Airtight container<br />Dark cupboard. <br />
  24. 24. Freezing<br />Fresh flavor<br />Some frozen dry<br />Others need water, oil <br />
  25. 25. Freezing<br />Wash, shake off excess moisture<br />Strip leaves and chop in processor or blender<br />Place in freezer bag, label, freeze immediately<br /> <br />
  26. 26. Freezing<br />Wash, strip leaves<br />Place in food processor with small amount of water or olive oil<br />Process, pour into ice cube trays to freeze<br />When frozen put cubes into labeled freezer bags <br />
  27. 27. Vinegars<br />Single herb vinegars – tarragon, basil<br />Combinations – peppercorns, garlic, hot peppers, mint, cardamom<br />
  28. 28. Vinegar<br />White, rice vinegars mild tasting- delicate herbs such as dill, tarragon<br />Stronger herbs – rosemary, thyme – cider, wine vinegar<br />white vinegar for colored leaves or flowers (opal basil, borage flowers<br /> <br />
  29. 29. Vinegars<br />Bruise handful of carefully washed herbs of choice<br />Put in jar, pour cold vinegar over them<br />Tighten lid, set in warm spot 3-4 weeks<br />Taste, strain into decorative bottle<br />Add sprig of fresh herb <br />