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SEEDS OF CULTIVATED
GRASSES
Cereals
© PDST Home Economics
MAIN CEREALS
 Wheat
 Oats
 Rice
 Maize (Corn)
 Rye
 Barley
WHEAT
OATS
RICE
MAIZE
BARLEY
RYE
AVERAGE COMPOSITION
Protein Fat Carbs. Vits. Mins. Water
7-15% 2-7% 70-77% 0.5% B 1%
Calcium
, Iron
12%
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CEREALS
 Useful amount of protein, HBV, gluten, growth.
 Small amount of unsaturated fat, energy.
 L...
VALUE OF CEREALS IN THE DIET
 Nutritious, especially whole grain products.
 Cheap.
 Filling.
 Good sort of protein for...
EFFECTS OF COOKING ON
CEREALS
 Starch grains swell and burst.
 The starch grains absorb liquids and thicken them.
 Star...
WHEAT GRAIN STRUCTURE
 Bran layer:
Fibre, Iron, Vit. B
 Endosperm:
Starch and Protein (gluten).
 Germ:
Fat, Vit. B, Iro...
GLUTEN
 Protein found in wheat
 Becomes stretchy when
wet
 Allows dough to stretch
when it is rising.
 At a certain te...
FLOUR
 Flour can be made from wheat, rye, oats, maize, rice.
 Most common is wheat flour because of the gluten.
 To mak...
TYPES OF FLOUR
Types Details
Wholemeal Flour Contains all parts of the grain
White Flour All the germ and bran removed
Sel...
WHEAT PRODUCTS
 Flours
 Germ
 Bran
 Semolina
 Couscous
 Breakfast cereals
 Bread, cakes, biscuits
PASTA
 Made from the endosperm
(semolina) of durum wheat mixed
with water, shaped and then dried
 Sometimes eggs are add...
RICE
 Grown mostly in the Far East
 White “polished” rice loses fibre and vitamin B
 Other rice products:
krispies, flo...
OTHER SEEDS
 Rich in: Omega fatty acids, Fibre, Vitamin E.
 Sesame, linseed, pumpkin, sunflower
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Cereals

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Cereals

  1. 1. SEEDS OF CULTIVATED GRASSES Cereals © PDST Home Economics
  2. 2. MAIN CEREALS  Wheat  Oats  Rice  Maize (Corn)  Rye  Barley
  3. 3. WHEAT
  4. 4. OATS
  5. 5. RICE
  6. 6. MAIZE
  7. 7. BARLEY
  8. 8. RYE
  9. 9. AVERAGE COMPOSITION Protein Fat Carbs. Vits. Mins. Water 7-15% 2-7% 70-77% 0.5% B 1% Calcium , Iron 12%
  10. 10. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CEREALS  Useful amount of protein, HBV, gluten, growth.  Small amount of unsaturated fat, energy.  Lots of carbohydrate, cellulose, starch, energy.  Vitamin B group for nerves and energy.  Calcium and Phosphorus for bones and Iron for the blood.  Very little water so they are easy to store.
  11. 11. VALUE OF CEREALS IN THE DIET  Nutritious, especially whole grain products.  Cheap.  Filling.  Good sort of protein for vegans.  No waste.  Easy to store, prepare, cook.  Over eating cereals can cause obesity.  Insipid.
  12. 12. EFFECTS OF COOKING ON CEREALS  Starch grains swell and burst.  The starch grains absorb liquids and thicken them.  Starch becomes digestible.  Cellulose softens.  Loss of vitamin B.
  13. 13. WHEAT GRAIN STRUCTURE  Bran layer: Fibre, Iron, Vit. B  Endosperm: Starch and Protein (gluten).  Germ: Fat, Vit. B, Iron, Protein
  14. 14. GLUTEN  Protein found in wheat  Becomes stretchy when wet  Allows dough to stretch when it is rising.  At a certain temperature it sets and the dough keeps the risen shape
  15. 15. FLOUR  Flour can be made from wheat, rye, oats, maize, rice.  Most common is wheat flour because of the gluten.  To make wholemeal flour, grains are ground (milled).  To make white flour the bran and germ are sieved out of the wholemeal flour  White flour is fortified with vitamins and minerals
  16. 16. TYPES OF FLOUR Types Details Wholemeal Flour Contains all parts of the grain White Flour All the germ and bran removed Self-raising Flour White flour with baking powder added Strong Flour Contains extra gluten for yeast bread. Gluten Free Flour Gluten removed for coeliacs
  17. 17. WHEAT PRODUCTS  Flours  Germ  Bran  Semolina  Couscous  Breakfast cereals  Bread, cakes, biscuits
  18. 18. PASTA  Made from the endosperm (semolina) of durum wheat mixed with water, shaped and then dried  Sometimes eggs are added.  Brown pasta made from wholemeal flour  Green pasta has spinach purée added.  Red pasta has tomato purée added.  Black pasta has squid ink added
  19. 19. RICE  Grown mostly in the Far East  White “polished” rice loses fibre and vitamin B  Other rice products: krispies, flour, cakes, paper, wine, ground rice. Type Detalis Long grain rice (Patna) Savoury dishes e.g. curry Medium grain rice (italian) (arborio) Risotto Short grain rice (pearl) (pudding) (Carolina) Sweet dishes e.g. rice pudding Basmati rice Savoury dishes Treated rice Quick to cook e.g. “Uncle Bens” boil in the bag Brown rice More nutritious, 40 mins. to cook
  20. 20. OTHER SEEDS  Rich in: Omega fatty acids, Fibre, Vitamin E.  Sesame, linseed, pumpkin, sunflower

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