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Fn1 ppt. fruits and vegetables


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Fn1 ppt. fruits and vegetables

  1. 1. Fruits and Vegetables:
  2. 2. Make half your plate Fruits and Vegetables. Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts as a member of the Vegetable Group. Vegetables may be raw or cooked; fresh, frozen, canned, or dried/dehydrated; and may be whole, cut-up, or mashed. Any fruit or 100% juice counts as part of the Fruit Group. Fruits may be fresh, canned, frozen, or dried, and may be whole, cut-up, or pureed. Some commonly eaten fruits are:
  3. 3. Recommended Daily Amounts of Fruits and Vegetables: FRUITS: 2½ cups day VEGIES: 3 cups day 1 c. of raw or cooked vegetables 1 c. of vegetable juice 2 c. of raw leafy greens 1 c. of fruit 1 c. 100% juice ½ c. of dried fruit
  4. 4. Classifications of Fruits: Drupes: Has one LARE PIT or seed and grows on trees. EXAMPLES: Apricot, Cherry, Nectarine, Peach Pomes: Has a CORE hat contains seeds and grows on trees. EXAMPLES: Apple, Pear Citrus Fruit: Has a leathery skin, many segments filled with juicy pellets, and grows on trees. EXAMPLES: Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime, Orange
  5. 5. Berries: Small, juicy fruits that contain many tiny seeds. EXAMPLES: Blackberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Grape, Raspberry, Strawberry Melons: Large, moist fruits that grow on vines and contain seeds, have a thick skin that may be rough or smooth. EXAMPLES: Cantaloupe, Casaba, Honeydew, Watermelon Tropical Fruit: Grows only in warm,, sunny climates. EXAMPLES: Avocado, Banana, Coconut, Guava, Kiwi, Mango, Pineapple
  6. 6. Classifications of Vegetables: BULBS: The underground structure where the plant’s nutrient reserves are stored. Round bud with a stem and overlapping leaves. EXAMPLES: Chive, Garlic, Leek, Onion, Shallot FLOWER: The blooms or flower buds of edible plants eaten as vegetables. EXAMPLES: Artichoke, Broccoli, Cauliflower FRUIT: Contains the seeds of the vegetable. EXAMPLES: Cucumber, Eggplant, Pepper, Squash, Tomato
  7. 7. LEAVES: Leaves of edible plants consumed as vegetables. EXAMPLES: Brussel sprouts, Cabbage, Lettuce, Kale, Spinach ROOT: The fleshy roots of edible plants consumed as vegetables. EXAMPLES: Beets, Carrots, Jicama, Parsnips, Turnip SEEDS: Vegetables grown and eaten from seeds. EXAMPLES: Corn, Green Beans, Peas
  8. 8. STEM: Edible stalk and leaves of plants consumed as vegetables. EXAMPLES: Asparagus, Bok Choy, Celery, Rhubarb TUBER: Grown underground. EXAMPLES: Potatoes
  9. 9. Nutrients provided by Fruits and Vegetables: Vitamins: Vitamin C: Helps heal wounds; healthy teeth and gums Minerals: Calcium: Healthy bones and teeth Potassium: Good blood pressure Vitamin A: Healthy Eyes/Skin; protects against infection Magnesium: Healthy bones Vitamin K: Healthy red blood cells and clotting factors Folate: Protects against spinal cord defects “B” Vitamin Complex: Healthy skin, nerves, tissues…. energy Iron: Healthy blood and cells Fiber: Decreases risk of colon cancer…. Sodium: Normal cell function and blood pressure
  10. 10. How to Select Fruits and Vegetables: *Guidelines for selecting quality produce…. Select produce that is: -“In season” ; best quality -Firm to the touch /crisp -The right color - bright -Well shaped /not wilted -Heavy for it’s size -Aromatic -In good condition… Avoid produce that is: -Too soft / Too hard -Over green or under ripe -Damaged /Bruised -Decayed /Mildewed -Discolored- mottled /dull -In shabby condition……
  11. 11. Proper Storage of Fruits and Vegetables: Fresh … 1.) Use within a few days. 2.) Some can be left at room temperature to ripen, then refrigerated. Dried … 1.) Store in a cool, dark place (warmth makes the food spoil faster). 2.) Some dried foods may be refrigerated- (check package) 3.) Consume before the “Use by” date on the package. 4.) Most will last from 4 months to a year. FIFO : First In, First Out Use oldest first, continually rotate
  12. 12. Canned … 1.) Check the “use by” date on the can. 2.) Most canned goods have a shelf life of about 2 years. 3.) Store at room temperature (about 72°F). Frozen … 1.) Store at 41°F or less. 2.) Use before the “use by” date on the package. 3.) As a rule, use within 6 months. Most frozen and canned foods are processed within hours of harvest, so their flavor and nutritional value are preserved. Studies show that recipes prepared with canned foods had similar nutritional values to those prepared with fresh or frozen ingredients. Frozen foods also require little preparation!
  13. 13. Best ways Preserve Nutrients: 1.) Cook in the shortest time possible with a LOW heat! 5.) Cook foods as close to serving time as possible 2.) Cook vegetables in a covered pot to prevent nutrients from escaping in the steam. 6.) Instead of wasting nutrients that have leached away during cooking, save the water and use in soups, stews, gravies, and sauces. 3.) Cook vegetables whole and unpeeled whenever possible. 7.) Cut produce with long cooking times into large pieces. With less surfaces exposed, fewer vitamins are lost. 4.) Leave edible skins on vegetables when possible. Many vitamins and minerals are found in the outer leaves, skin, and area just below the skin. * Plant enzymes are easily destroyed by heat. We need enzymes for life and we don’t get enough as many people eat too many processed foods devoid of them. Adding a destructive cooking method to your plant foods only adds to the burden of digestion.
  14. 14. Preparation and Cooking Methods: BOILING: An especially destructive cooking method! Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, brussel sprouts, and cabbage) had almost 90 %of their cancer-fighting antioxidants removed after boiling, but not much lost after steaming or stir-frying.
  15. 15. MICROWAVE: Cooking vegetables in the microwave is quick, easy and tastes just as good as on the stove. The vegetables retain more nutrients than cooking veggies on the stove because there is less water involved, sending fewer nutrients down the drain with the water. The microwave is also said to bring out more flavor. BAKE: It’s good for most veggies, with exceptions. Some of the antioxidant properties in garlic and peppers were significantly lowered in the oven. Most other veggies retain nutrient content well.
  16. 16. STEAM: Seams to be the method of choice to retain as much of the nutrient content as possible. Steaming is one of the best ways to cook veggies so they keep their nutrients. Vitamins are easily destroyed when you cook with water for long periods of time (i.e. boiling), but steaming uses the steam from boiling water to cook your food — not the water directly. STIR-FRY/SAUTE’: Stir-frying is a technique for cooking food quickly, so that it retains nutrients, texture and flavor. Stirfrying typically involves a quick sauté over high heat, occasionally followed by a brief steam in a flavored sauce.
  17. 17. SIMMER: Simmering involves cooking vegetables in a smaller amount of liquid than boiling them, and at a lower temperature, enough to keep a gentle simmer going. The pot is covered, trapping the steam and cooking the vegetables in less time so that their vibrant colors are retained.
  18. 18. Conditions that destroy Nutrients…. Factors that Oxidation destroy nutrients are: Oxidation occurs when fruits and vegetables are cut and exposed to the air, the cells are 1. High temperatures severed, releasing enzymes and causing 2. Prolonged cooking times discoloration--usually a browning or darkening of the flesh. 3. Alkalis such as baking Prevent Oxidation by…. soda and hard water *Treating the fruit or vegetable with 4. Soaking vegetables in ascorbic acid immediately after cutting water before cooking. into it. *Cover the fruit or vegetable tightly 5. Oxygen! (oxidation) with plastic food wrap *Cook or freeze immediately after cutting.