Outline of literary forms based on philippine historical
OUTLINE OF LITERARY FORMS BASED ONPHILIPPINE HISTORICAL PERIOD
ANCIENT LITERATURE/FOLK LITERATURE1. Myth – a traditional story in prose concerning details of gods and demigods and the creation of the world and its inhabitants. Examples: 1. Visayan Creation Myth 2. Bagobo Creation Story 3. Tungkung Langit and Alunsina
Heroic Narratives or Epics Folk epics which narrate the adventures of tribal heroes which embody in themselves the ideals and values of the group. Examples: Lam-Ang Ulalim Ibalon Indarapatra at Sulayman
Ethnological Legends• Legends which explain how things came to be, why things are as they are. 1. Legend of the Mayon Volcano 2. Legend of the Tagalogs 3. Gaddang
Folk Tales• Prose narrative regarded as: a. Animal Tale- a folktale using animals as characters - Monkey and the Turtle - The Cow and the Carabao b. Folk Speech – simplest form of oral literature1. Riddles – description of object in terms intended and suggest something entirely different.
Example: Tumakbo si Juan, nahati ang daan. (zipper)2. Proverbs – short popular sayings that expresses effectively some commonplace truth or useful thought.Example: Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalinga, hindi nakararating sa paroroonan.
c. Folk Songs- verse set into music by the members of the community.Example:Manang BidayDandansoy
POETRY• Refers to those expressions in verse, with measure and rhyme, line and stanza, and has a more melodious tone.• Poems are forms of literature usually written in lines or verses that makes up a stanza.• Poems are designed to be read aloud. The recitation of the poem reveals its rhythm, and thought units that help out the meaning it wishes to convey.
Elements of Poetry1. Sense – it is revealed through the words, images, and symbols. a. diction – the denotative and connotative meanings of the words. b. Images and sense impressions- the words used that appeal to the sense of sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch.c. Figures of speech- the creative use of words or expressions that poet uses to enhance the sense impression.
2. Sound• This is the result of the creative combination of words. The poet may resort to the use of anaphora, alliteration, assonance, rhyme, and repetition. a. Rhythm- the ordered alternation of strong and weak elements in the flow of sound and silence.b. Meter- the duration, stress number and syllables per line.c. Rhyme Scheme- the formal arrangement of rhymes in a stanza or in the whole poem.
3. Structure• This refers to the arrangement of words and lines to fit together and the organization of the parts to form the whole.a. Word order- the natural or unnatural arrangement of words.b. Ellipsis- omitting some words for economy or effect.c. Punctuation- abundance or lack of punctuation.d. Shape- contextual or visual design, omission of spaces, use of capitalization or lower case.
TYPES OF POETRY• NARRATIVE POETRY• LYRIC POETRY• DRAMATIC POETRY
NARRATIVE POETRYThis form describes the important events in life either real or imaginary. There are different varieties:1. Epic – This is an extended narrative about heroic exploits often under supernatural control. It may deal with heroes and gods.
2. Metrical tale- This is a narrative which is written and told in verse.EXAMPLE: BAYANI NG BUKID Al Perez Ako’y magsasakang bayani ng bukid Sandata’y araro matapang sa init Hindi natatakot kahit na sa lamig Sa buong maghapon gumagawa ng pilit.
Ang kaibigan ko ay si Kalakian Laging nakahanda maging araw-araw Sa pag-aararo at sa paglilinangUpang maihanda ang lupang mayaman. Ang haring araw di dapat sumisikat Ako’y pupunta na sa napakalawakNa aking bukiring laging nasa hagapAt tanging pag-asa ng taong masipag.
Sa aking lupain doon nagmumula Lahat ng pagkain nitong ating bansa Ang lahat ng tao, mayaman o dukha Sila’y umaasa sa pawis ko’t gawa.Sa aking paggawa ang tangi kong hangad And ani’y dumami na para sa lahatKapag ang balana’y may pagkaing tiyak Umaasa akong puso’y nagagalak.
2. Ballads- of the narrative poems, this is considered the shortest and the simplest. It has a simple structure and narrate a single incident.
LYRIC POETRY• Originally, this refers to the kind of poetry meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre, but now this applies to any type of poetry that expresses emotions and feelings of the poet. They are usually short, simple and easy to understand.• It expresses the author’s mood, emotion, and reflection in musical language.• It derives its name from the lyre, and was primarily intended to be sung. Not all lyrics are singable, but they are melodious.
1. Folksongs (Awiting Bayan)• These are short poems, intended to be sung. The common theme is love, despair, grief, doubt, joy, hope, and sorrow.
CHIT-CHIRIT-CHIT Chitchiritchit alibangbang Salaginto salagubang Ang babae sa lansanganKung gumiri’y parang tandang Santo Nino sa Pandacan Puto seko sa tindahanKung ayaw kang magpautang Uubusin ka ng langgam.
Mama, mama, namamangka Pasakayin yaring bata Pagdating sa Maynila Ipagpalit ng manika. Ale, ale, namamayong Pasukubin yaring sanggol Pagdating sa Malabon Ipagpalit ng Bagoong.
CHIT-CHIRIT-CHIT (English) Chit-Chirit-Chit, Alibangbang Gold bug and the beetle The street woman Struts like a rooster. Child saint of Pandacan Puto seco in the store If you don’t want to lend You’ll be devoured by ants.
Sir, sir, paddling the canoe Give this child a ride When you reach Manila Swap it with a doll.Lady, lady, with the umbrella Shade this infant When you reach Malabon Swap it with Bagoong.
SonnetsThis is a lyric poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, feeling, or an idea. There are two types of sonnet: Shakespearean and Petrarchan (Italian).EXAMPLE:
SANTANG BUDS by Alfonso P. Santos Let me see in dreams the santang buds That in my absence blossom still besideMy window, Crimson buds, like crimson pearls Ever faithfulness they bloom, unchanged, Unfailing like the memories of home,Now is the time, the season of their blooming, An hour less, an hour more, yet staysTheir crimson evermore unchanged, untouched
Let me but see in dreams the santang budsThat in my absence blooms, in faith for one Heart lost in foreign lands, fated to shareNo love, no fortune from the world but born To suffer want and misery, decreed To live unknown, in penitence and need.
ELEGYThis is a lyric poem which expresses the feelings and griefs and melancholy, and whose theme is death.It may voiced the author’s personal grief for a loved one, or a loss affecting the public as a whole, or it may be just a meditation about death in general.
THE LOVER’S DEATH Ricardo DemetilloHe who had lived the earth with a firm loveIs now, being infirm, laid in the earthThat covers him with green grass quietly,Once when he walked the fields, he suddenly kneltAnd with an avid gesture clasped the earth.His sun-lit fingers sift the dust.
Lovers would write their incoherent view,On passionate pages, but he, on the pads of meadow,Wrote with his plow a tongue-tied love.Field understood, for when the harvest ripened,Fruits lay like a brown breast for his hands to pluck,And he with the lightness, touch each pregnant stalkHis house was quiet, like the man who closed
The gate-behind him when the lamplight glowedHe knew no woman’s touch except the earth’sWe thought it fitting that the sun should touchWith quite fingers the rice-fronds in the fieldWhen he, after a fever, gave himself to dusk.We could not salvage breath, but we could swatheHis body and lay it in the earth he lovedHe may return and beckon from a sheaf.
ODE• This is a poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite number of syllables or definite number of lines.• It is the most majestic type of lyric poem. It expresses enthusiasm, lofty praise of some person, thing, a deep reflection, or a restrained feeling.• The author is in an exalted mood.
PSALMS (DALIT)• This is a song praising God or the Virgin Mary and containing philosophy of life.EXAMPLE:O Mariang sakdal dilagDalagang lubhang mapaladTanging pinili sa lahatNg Diyos Haring Mataas
Itong bulaklak na alayAming pagsintang tunayPalitan mo Birheng MahalNg Tuwa sa kalangitan.Halina’t tayo ay mag-alayNg bulaklak kay MariaHalina’t magsilapitDine sa birheng marikitNg Inang kaibig-ibig
Dakilang Reyna sa langitNg ampuni’t saklolohanTayong mga anak niya.
AWIT• These have measures of twelve syllables (dodecasyllabic) and slowly sung to the accompaniment of a guitar or banduria.• An example of awit is FLORANTE AT LAURA by Francisco Balagtas.• It is a fabrication of the writers imagination although the characters and setting may be European.
EXAMPLE IN FRANCISCO BALTAZAR’S FLORANTE AT LAURA: Ang taong magawi sa ligaya’t aliw,Mahina ang puso, lubhang maramdamin,Inaakala pa lamang ang hilahilNa daratna’y di na matutuhang bathin
CORRIDO (KURIDOS)• These have measures of eight syllables (octosyllabic) and recited to a martial beat.• They were widely read during the Spanish period that field the populace’s need for entertainment as well as edifying reading matter in their leisure moment.• Deal mostly with courtly love and the chivalric adventures of such heroes as Charlemagne and his peers and El Cid.
Example from “Ibong Adarna” O birheng kaibig-ibig Di-umano’y si Don JuanIna naming nasa langit, Bunso niyang minamahalLiwanagin yaring isip Ay nililo at pinatayNang sa layo’y di malihis. Ng dalawang tampalasanGanito ang napagsapit May isang ibong magandaNg haring kaibig-ibig Ang pangalan ay Adarna,Nang siya’y managinip Pag naririnig mong kumantaIsang gabing naiidlip Sa sakit ay giginhawa.
DRAMATIC POETRYIncluded in this form are: Comedy, Melodrama, Tragedy, Farce, and Social Poems.1. Comedy – The word comedy comes from the Greek word “Komos” meaning festivity or revelry. This form is usually light and written with the purpose of amusing, and usually has a happy ending.
2. Melodrama- This is usually used in a musical plays with the opera. Today, this is related to tragedy just as the farce is to comedy. It arouses immediate and intense emotion and is usually sad but there is a happy ending for the principal character.3. Tragedy – This involves the hero struggling mightily against dynamic forces; he meets death or ruin without success and satisfaction obtained by the protagonist in a comedy.
4. Farce- This is an exaggerated comedy. It seeks to arouse mirth by laughable lines, situation are too ridiculous to be true; the characters seem to be caricatures and the motives undignified and absurd.5. Social poems- this form is either purely comic or tragic as it pictures the life of today. It may aim to bring about changes in the social conditions.
REVOLT FROM HYMEN Angela Manalang Gloria (1940) O to be free at last, to sleep at lastAs infants sleep within the womb of rest!To stir and stirring find no blackness vast With passion weighted down upon the breast,
To turn the face this way and that and feel No kisses festering on it like sores, To be alone at last, broken the seal That marks the flesh no better than a whores.
PANUNULUYAN- Literally, seeking entrance, the Tagalog version of the Mexican Posadas. Held on the eve of Christmas, it dramatizes Joseph’s and Mary’s search for lodging in Bethlehem.- Is also called Pananapatan or Panawagan. Gagharong or Paharongharong in Bicol.
CENACULO• Was originally just the dramatization of the passion and death of Jesus Christ presented during Maundy Thursday and Good Friday.• The players either speak their lines in a slow and deliberate way, (hablada); or chant their lines in the manner of pasyon singing (cantada).
SALUBONG• An Easter play that dramatizes the meeting of the risen Christ and his mother.
THE MORIONES• Refers to the participants dressed as Roman soldiers, their identities hidden behind the colorful, sometimes grotesque, wooden mask.• The Pugutan or beheading climaxes the Moriones festival. The headless body is then taken in procession around the town by his fellow soldier and then buried.
THE TIBAG• Also known as Santacruzan.• It is performed during the month of May which have a devotion to the Holy Cross. It depicts St. Elena’s search for the cross on which Christ died.• The Tagalog name TIBAG comes from the act of excavating or leveling the mounds.
THE PANGANGALUWA• An interesting socio-religious practice on All Saint’s Day which literally means “for the Soul”• The practice is based on the old belief that the souls in the purgatory are “released” on the night of All Saint’s Day to go begging alms on earth.• These were generally held during the nine nights of vigil and prayers after someone’s death, or the first death anniversary when the family members put away their mourning clothes.
THE KARAGATAN• “Open Sea”, comes from the legendary practice of testing the mettle of young men vying for a maiden’s hand. The maiden’s ring would be dropped into the sea and whoever retrieves it would have the girl’s hand in marriage.
THE DUPLO• A forerunner of the balagtasan. The performers consist of two teams: one composed of young women called Dupleras or Belyakas; and the other, of young men called Dupleros or Belyakos. An elderly man- the Hari or Punong Halaman- presides over the proceedings.
THE COMEDIA• One of the earliest forms of stage drama which took on a particular aspect; that of a particular play which had for its main theme courtly love, usually between a prince and a princess of different religions – one a Christian, the other a Muslim. These conflicts were resolved in the end, with the victory of the Christians, a propaganda tool which was endorsed by the friars.