Iliad final


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Iliad final

  1. 1. About the Author • He is the composer of Iliad and the Odyssey which hold the privilege of being the greatest poems of world literature. • He was said to be a court singer and a story teller. • Homer’s birth date is disputed. Herodotus (who lived about 450 B.C.) believes Homer lived about 850 B.C.; other believe he lived earlier, closer to the Trojan war (11th or 12th century B.C.); some modern experts believe Homer lived later, about 600 B.C. • Homer’s birth place is also disputed. Many towns in the Mediterranean claim to be Homer’s birthplace; tradition claims the island of Chios in the eastern Mediterranean.
  2. 2. • In fact, Homer’s existence is disputed. Was there really a man named Homer? Legend attributes the epic poems – The Iliad and The Odyssey — to a man named Homer, but no actual biographical information had been recorded. No one really knows if he existed. • The epic poems were first set down in writing in about 700 B.C., although supposedly they were written long before that, being passed from generation to generation as performances. • Some believe the poems were written by one person, while others believe a number of people contributed to the whole. • The name Homer sounds like Greek words meaning “hostage” and/or “blind,” which may have influenced the characterization of Homer as a former slave that became a blind bard.
  3. 3. • Iliad narrates the happenings in the city of Ilion during the Trojan War. Ilion was a city within the state of Troy. • The word Iliad is derived from the name of the city and its literal meaning is ‘something concerned with Ilion’. The Iliad is a poetic description of the war, its main characters, fighters, incidents and scenes from the war. It explains how the Greek and Trojan warriors gain strength from their Gods and make sacrifices in their name.
  4. 4. Setting: • SETTING (TIME) · Bronze Age (around the twelfth or thirteenth century B.C.); The Iliad begins nine years after the start of the Trojan War • SETTING (PLACE) · Troy (a city in what is now northwestern Turkey)
  5. 5. Characters:
  6. 6. Greeks • Achilles: leads the Myrmidons against the Trojans. He is revered as the greatest warrior in the world; no man can stand against him. Achilles is the son of Peleus, and a sea nymph named Thetis. • Agamemnon: Commander-in-chief of the Greek armies and son of Atreus, the king of Mycenae. • Menelaus: King of Sparta and brother of Agamemnon. • Helen: Wife of Menelaus, paramour of Paris, and the most beautiful woman in the world. • Odysseus (Roman Name, Ulysses): King of Ithaca and brilliant strategist. He is unsurpassed in cunning.
  7. 7. • Aias the Great (Roman Name, Ajax the Great): Hulking giant who is second only to Achilles in battlefield prowess. • Aias the Lesser (Roman Name, Ajax the Lesser, or the Locrian Ajax): Leader of the Locrian archers on the Greek side. • Patroclus: Greek warrior and beloved companion of Achilles. • Calchas: Greek soothsayer who advises Agamemnon. • Nestor: Wise old king who advises Agamemnon. • Diomedes: Powerful Greek warrior.
  8. 8. • Idomeneus: King of Crete, who leads a Greek contingent against the Trojans. • Machaon: Greek physician wounded by Paris. • Automedon: Chariot driver for Achilles. • Phoenix: Elderly Greek warrior and trusted friend of Achilles. • Briseis: Beautiful captive of Achilles. • Chryseis: Female captive of Agamemnon. He is forced to give her up. • Eudorus: Myrmidon commander under Achilles. • Neoptolemus: Son of Achilles. He arrives at Troy in the last year of fighting. • Stentor: Greek herald.
  9. 9. Trojans • Priam: King of Troy. • Hecuba: Wife of Priam and queen of Troy. • Hector: Bravest and most accomplished of the Trojan warriors; son of Priam. Achilles slays him. • Andromache: Hector's noble and dedicated wife. • Astyanax: Son of Hector and Andromache. • Paris: Trojan who took Helen From Menelaus. • Aeneas: Brave and powerful Trojan warrior. • Polydamas: Wise Trojan commander. •
  10. 10. • Glaucus: Great Trojan warrior. • Dolon: Trojan spy who reconnoiters the Greek camp. Pandarus: Trojan archer. Antenor: Advisor to King Priam. He argues that Paris should return Helen to the Greeks, but Paris will not give her up. Sarpedon: Leader of the Lycian allies on the side the Trojans. He fights bravely but dies at the hands of Patroclus. Sarpedon was the son of Zeus and Laodameia, a human. Laocoön: Trojan seer. Deiphobus: Trojan warrior and son of Priam.
  11. 11. Gorgythion: Trojan warrior and son of Priam. He dies by an arrow meant for Hector. Cebriones: Chariot driver for Hector. Helenus: Trojan seer and son of Priam and Hecuba. Pandarus: Trojan archer. Euphorbus: Trojan soldier who wounds Patroclus.
  12. 12. Gods • Zeus (Roman names, Jupiter and Jove): King of the gods, who prefers to remain neutral in the war but intervenes after a plea for help. • Hera (Roman name, Juno): Queen of the gods, who favors the Greeks. Athena (Roman name, Minerva): Goddess of wisdom and war, who favors the Greeks. • Poseidon (Roman name, Neptune): God of the sea, who favors the Greeks. • Hephaestus (Roman name, Vulcan): God of the forge, who favors the Greeks. • Aphrodite (Roman name, Venus): Goddess of love and beauty, who sides with the Trojans.
  13. 13. • Apollo (or Phoebus Apollo): Highly revered and feared sun god, who sides with the Trojans. • Ares (Roman name, Mars): God of war, who sides with the Trojans. • Artemis (Roman name, Diana): Goddess of archery and hunting, who sides with the Trojans. • Hades (Roman Name, Pluto): God of the Underworld. • Hermes (Roman Name, Mercury): Messenger god. He guides Priam to Achilles' tent to ransom the body of Hector. • Thetis: Sea nymph who is the mother of Achilles. • Iris: Messenger goddess.
  14. 14. Background of Troy • It begins with the building of the wall of the city of Troy with the help of Poseidon during the the king is Laomedon.
  15. 15. City of Troy
  16. 16. • The Trojans withdrew to compensate to Poseidon. • King Priam and Hecuba and his family. • Hecuba’s dream about Paris
  17. 17. The Wedding of Peleus and Thetis
  18. 18. The Golden Apple
  19. 19. Judgement of Paris Paris chose Aphrodite
  20. 20. • Paris went to Troy and became a prince. • Paris went to Sparta and abducted Helen. • Menelaus rage
  21. 21. Paris with Helen
  22. 22. Achilles in the River Styx Prophecy about Odysseus and Achilles. History of Achilles
  23. 23. Iphegenia as Sacrfice •Agamemnon killed one of the favorite deer of Artemis •Iphegenia as sacrifice
  24. 24. Arrival of the Greeks •The expedition •Two beautiful women, Chryseis and Briseis
  25. 25. Summary Of Iliad • Achilles and Agamemnon Quarrel – Chrysies for Agamemnon and Brieses for Achilles – The plague through the Greeks – Achilles seek help to Calchas and know the reason of plague – Agamemnon ask for the replacement of Chryseis with the prize of Achilles – Achilles get insulted and withdrew to fight – Achilles ask help to his mother sea nymph, Thetis
  26. 26. Achilles and Agamemnon Quarrel
  27. 27. Thetis ask Zeus to help his son
  28. 28. • Zeus help the Trojans • Agamemnon false hope • The test of Greeks armies loyalty
  29. 29. Paris vs. Menelaus
  30. 30. • Paris and Menelaus fight • Aphrodite saves Paris • Agamemnon announce the winner • The conference of the gods • Hera and Athena protest • Athena advices Pandarus to kill Menelaus to break the truce • The war begins again.
  31. 31. • Pandarus wounded Diomedes • Athena give Diomedes new courage and privilege • Diomedes wounded Aeneas • Aphrodite save Aeneas • Diomedes wounded Aprodite and Ares • Zeus stop Aphrodite and Ares in joining the war
  32. 32. • Hector return to Troy to advice the women to have an offer to the temple of Athena. • Hector urge Paris to join the battle • Hector visit his wife Andromache and his son Astyanax
  33. 33. Hector and Andromache
  34. 34. • Athena and Apollo decided to stop the fight for a while by a combat between Hector and Ajax. • Trojans and Greeks Bury their deads • Zeus warns other gods and goddesses not to interfere in war
  35. 35. • Agamemnon suggest to sail home • Nestor advices Agamemnon to give gifts to Achilles as reconciliation • Ajax and Odysseus went to Achilles but he refuses to accepts the gifts • Diomedes encourage everyone to fight without the help of Achilles
  36. 36. • At night Diomedes and Odysseus volunteer to spy at the camp of the trojans • Diomedes and Odysseus caught Dolon. • Achilles get satisfied for his wounded pride
  37. 37. • Nestor convinces Patrolus to persuade Achilles again or to act as Achilles • Poseidon helps the Greeks • Hera plan to distruct Zeus
  38. 38. Hera seduce Zeus to help the Greeks
  39. 39. • Achilles allow Patroclus to join the battle wearing his armor • Patrolus killed a lot of Trojans • Apollo intervene to Patroclus and wounded him • Hector killed Patroclus and get his armor • Greek get the body of Patroclus
  40. 40. Patroclus and Achilles
  41. 41. • Achilles know the death of Patroclus and vow to kill Hector • Thetis promised him a new armor from Hephaestus • Achilles join the battle and ended his anger to Agamemnon • Gifts are given to him including Brieses
  42. 42. • One of the horses of Achilles prophecy his death • Zeus allow the gods to join the battle again • Hera, Athena, Poseidon and Hephaestus to Greeks while Apollo, Artemis and Aphrodite to Trojans
  43. 43. • Achilles kill many Trojans in River of Xanthus • The god of the river attack Achilles • Hera and Hephaestus help Achilles • Hector prepare to fight with Achilles • Athena deludes Hector • Hector make an agreement but Achilles refuses.
  44. 44. Achilles kills Hector with the help of Athena
  45. 45. Achilles with Hector’s body
  46. 46. • Achilles prepare a funeral for Patroclus • Apollo and Aphrodite protect the body of Hector • Zeus and other gods decided to have suitable burial for Hertor’s body. • Thetis explain it to his son. • Hermes escorted King Priam
  47. 47. Achilles and King Priam
  48. 48. • The Iliad ends there, before Achilles dies from an arrow shot into his heel, before the Greeks enter Troy by means of a hollow wooden horse and destroy the citadel.
  49. 49. Fall of Troy • After Hector’s burial, the battle begins • Paris killed Achilles with the help of Apollo • Claiming of Achilles armor • Ajax commit suicide • The oracle instructed to secure the bow and arrow of Hercules handed by Philoctetes • Philoctetes killed Paris
  50. 50. Achilles Death
  51. 51. • Greeks made several thing to be victorious – Bring the bone of Pelops back to Greece back to Asia – Bring Achilles son Neoptolemus into the war – Steal the sacred image of Athena from Trojans • Odysseus plan to enter the Wall of Troy
  52. 52. Trojan Horse
  53. 53. • The Great Horse • The story of Sinon • The Greek plans succeed • King Priam killed • Astynax was thrown from the wall of Troy
  54. 54. Astynax was thrown from the wall of Troy
  55. 55. Literary Devices • THEMES · The glory of war; military values over family life; the impermanence of human life and its creations • FORESHADOWING · Foreshadowing is prominent in The Iliad, as the poet constantly refers to events that have yet to occur and to fated outcomes. • En Medias Res • POINT OF VIEW · The narrator speaks in the third person. An omniscient narrator (he has access to every character’s mind), he frequently gives insight into the thoughts and feelings of even minor characters, gods and mortals alike.
  56. 56. Analysis: • Historical Approach