About the Author
• He is the composer of Iliad and the
Odyssey which hold the privilege of being
the greatest poems of world literature.
• He was said to be a court singer and a
• Homer’s birth date is disputed. Herodotus
(who lived about 450 B.C.) believes
Homer lived about 850 B.C.; other believe
he lived earlier, closer to the Trojan war
(11th or 12th century B.C.); some modern
experts believe Homer lived later, about
• Homer’s birth place is also disputed. Many
towns in the Mediterranean claim to be
Homer’s birthplace; tradition claims the
island of Chios in the eastern
• In fact, Homer’s existence is disputed. Was there really a
man named Homer? Legend attributes the epic poems –
The Iliad and The Odyssey — to a man named Homer,
but no actual biographical information had been
recorded. No one really knows if he existed.
• The epic poems were first set down in writing in about
700 B.C., although supposedly they were written long
before that, being passed from generation to generation
• Some believe the poems were written by one person,
while others believe a number of people contributed to
• The name Homer sounds like Greek words meaning
“hostage” and/or “blind,” which may have influenced the
characterization of Homer as a former slave that became
a blind bard.
• Iliad narrates the happenings in the city
of Ilion during the Trojan War. Ilion was a
city within the state of Troy.
• The word Iliad is derived from the name
of the city and its literal meaning is
‘something concerned with Ilion’. The
Iliad is a poetic description of the war, its
main characters, fighters, incidents and
scenes from the war. It explains how the
Greek and Trojan warriors gain strength
from their Gods and make sacrifices in
• SETTING (TIME) · Bronze Age
(around the twelfth or thirteenth
century B.C.); The Iliad begins nine
years after the start of the Trojan
• SETTING (PLACE) · Troy (a city in
what is now northwestern Turkey)
• Achilles: leads the Myrmidons
against the Trojans. He is revered as
the greatest warrior in the world; no
man can stand against him. Achilles is
the son of Peleus, and a sea nymph
• Agamemnon: Commander-in-chief of
the Greek armies and son of Atreus, the
king of Mycenae.
Menelaus: King of Sparta and brother
Helen: Wife of Menelaus, paramour of
Paris, and the most beautiful woman in
Odysseus (Roman Name, Ulysses):
King of Ithaca and brilliant strategist.
He is unsurpassed in cunning.
• Aias the Great (Roman Name, Ajax
the Great): Hulking giant who is
second only to Achilles in battlefield
Aias the Lesser (Roman Name, Ajax
the Lesser, or the Locrian Ajax): Leader
of the Locrian archers on the Greek
Patroclus: Greek warrior and beloved
companion of Achilles.
Calchas: Greek soothsayer who advises
Nestor: Wise old king who advises
• Diomedes: Powerful Greek warrior.
Idomeneus: King of Crete, who leads a Greek contingent
against the Trojans.
Machaon: Greek physician wounded by Paris.
Automedon: Chariot driver for Achilles.
Phoenix: Elderly Greek warrior and trusted friend of Achilles.
Briseis: Beautiful captive of Achilles.
Chryseis: Female captive of Agamemnon. He is forced to give her
Eudorus: Myrmidon commander under Achilles.
Neoptolemus: Son of Achilles. He arrives at Troy in the last year
Stentor: Greek herald.
• Priam: King of Troy.
Hecuba: Wife of Priam and queen of Troy.
Hector: Bravest and most accomplished of the Trojan
warriors; son of Priam. Achilles slays him.
Andromache: Hector's noble and dedicated wife.
Astyanax: Son of Hector and Andromache.
Paris: Trojan who took Helen From Menelaus.
Aeneas: Brave and powerful Trojan warrior.
Polydamas: Wise Trojan commander.
• Glaucus: Great Trojan warrior.
Dolon: Trojan spy who reconnoiters the Greek camp.
Pandarus: Trojan archer.
Antenor: Advisor to King Priam. He argues that Paris should
return Helen to the Greeks, but Paris will not give her up.
Sarpedon: Leader of the Lycian allies on the side the Trojans. He
fights bravely but dies at the hands of Patroclus. Sarpedon was
the son of Zeus and Laodameia, a human.
Laocoön: Trojan seer.
Deiphobus: Trojan warrior and son of Priam.
Gorgythion: Trojan warrior and son of Priam.
He dies by an arrow meant for Hector.
Cebriones: Chariot driver for Hector.
Helenus: Trojan seer and son of Priam and
Pandarus: Trojan archer.
Euphorbus: Trojan soldier who wounds
• Zeus (Roman names, Jupiter and Jove): King of the gods,
who prefers to remain neutral in the war but intervenes after a
plea for help.
Hera (Roman name, Juno): Queen of the gods, who favors the
Athena (Roman name, Minerva): Goddess of wisdom and war,
who favors the Greeks.
Poseidon (Roman name, Neptune): God of the sea, who
favors the Greeks.
Hephaestus (Roman name, Vulcan): God of the forge, who
favors the Greeks.
Aphrodite (Roman name, Venus): Goddess of love and beauty,
who sides with the Trojans.
• Apollo (or Phoebus Apollo): Highly revered and
feared sun god, who sides with the Trojans.
Ares (Roman name, Mars): God of war, who sides
with the Trojans.
Artemis (Roman name, Diana): Goddess of
archery and hunting, who sides with the Trojans.
Hades (Roman Name, Pluto): God of the
Hermes (Roman Name, Mercury): Messenger
god. He guides Priam to Achilles' tent to ransom the
body of Hector.
Thetis: Sea nymph who is the mother of Achilles.
Iris: Messenger goddess.
Background of Troy
• It begins with the building of the wall
of the city of Troy with the help of
Poseidon during the the king is
Achilles in the River Styx
Prophecy about Odysseus and Achilles.
History of Achilles
Iphegenia as Sacrfice
killed one of
Arrival of the Greeks
•Two beautiful women, Chryseis and
Summary Of Iliad
• Achilles and Agamemnon Quarrel
– Chrysies for Agamemnon and Brieses for
– The plague through the Greeks
– Achilles seek help to Calchas and know the
reason of plague
– Agamemnon ask for the replacement of
Chryseis with the prize of Achilles
– Achilles get insulted and withdrew to fight
– Achilles ask help to his mother sea nymph,
• Paris and Menelaus fight
• Aphrodite saves Paris
• Agamemnon announce the winner
• The conference of the gods
• Hera and Athena protest
• Athena advices Pandarus to kill
Menelaus to break the truce
• The war begins again.
• Pandarus wounded Diomedes
• Athena give Diomedes new courage
• Diomedes wounded Aeneas
• Aphrodite save Aeneas
• Diomedes wounded Aprodite and
• Zeus stop Aphrodite and Ares in
joining the war
• Hector return to Troy to advice
the women to have an offer to
the temple of Athena.
• Hector urge Paris to join the
• Hector visit his wife Andromache
and his son Astyanax
• Athena and Apollo decided to stop
the fight for a while by a combat
between Hector and Ajax.
• Trojans and Greeks Bury their deads
• Zeus warns other gods and
goddesses not to interfere in war
• Agamemnon suggest to sail home
• Nestor advices Agamemnon to give
gifts to Achilles as reconciliation
• Ajax and Odysseus went to Achilles
but he refuses to accepts the gifts
• Diomedes encourage everyone to
fight without the help of Achilles
• At night Diomedes and Odysseus
volunteer to spy at the camp of the
• Diomedes and Odysseus caught
• Achilles get satisfied for his wounded
• Nestor convinces Patrolus to
persuade Achilles again or to act as
• Poseidon helps the Greeks
• Hera plan to distruct Zeus
• Achilles allow Patroclus to join the
battle wearing his armor
• Patrolus killed a lot of Trojans
• Apollo intervene to Patroclus and
• Hector killed Patroclus and get his
• Greek get the body of Patroclus
• Achilles know the death of
Patroclus and vow to kill Hector
• Thetis promised him a new
armor from Hephaestus
• Achilles join the battle and ended
his anger to Agamemnon
• Gifts are given to him including
• One of the horses of Achilles
prophecy his death
• Zeus allow the gods to join the battle
• Hera, Athena, Poseidon and
Hephaestus to Greeks while Apollo,
Artemis and Aphrodite to Trojans
• Achilles kill many Trojans in River of
• The god of the river attack Achilles
• Hera and Hephaestus help Achilles
• Hector prepare to fight with Achilles
• Athena deludes Hector
• Hector make an agreement but
• Achilles prepare a funeral for
• Apollo and Aphrodite protect the
body of Hector
• Zeus and other gods decided to have
suitable burial for Hertor’s body.
• Thetis explain it to his son.
• Hermes escorted King Priam
• The Iliad ends there, before
Achilles dies from an arrow
shot into his heel, before the
Greeks enter Troy by means
of a hollow wooden horse and
destroy the citadel.
Fall of Troy
• After Hector’s burial, the battle begins
• Paris killed Achilles with the help of
• Claiming of Achilles armor
• Ajax commit suicide
• The oracle instructed to secure the bow
and arrow of Hercules handed by
• Philoctetes killed Paris
• Greeks made several thing to be
– Bring the bone of Pelops back to Greece
back to Asia
– Bring Achilles son Neoptolemus into the
– Steal the sacred image of Athena from
• Odysseus plan to enter the Wall of
• THEMES · The glory of war; military values over
family life; the impermanence of human life and its
• FORESHADOWING · Foreshadowing is prominent
in The Iliad, as the poet constantly refers to events
that have yet to occur and to fated outcomes.
• En Medias Res
• POINT OF VIEW · The narrator speaks in the third
person. An omniscient narrator (he has access to
every character’s mind), he frequently gives insight
into the thoughts and feelings of even minor
characters, gods and mortals alike.