• literary work in which special intensity
is given to the expression of feelings
and ideas by the use of distinctive style
and rhythm; poems collectively or as a
genre of literature. (Oxford
• literature that evokes a concentrated
imaginative awareness of experience or
a specific emotional response through
language chosen and arranged for its
meaning, sound, and rhythm.
• The language of imagination
expressed in verse. (Webster’s
• It can be defined as ‘literature in
metrical form’ or a ‘compostition
forming rhythmic lines’.
• A poem follows a particular flow
of rhythm and meter.
• Compared to prose, where there is
no such restriction, and the
content of a piece flows according
to story, a poem may or may not
have a story, but definitely has a
structured method of writing.
• Elements of poetry can be defined
as a set of instruments used to
create a poem. Many of these
were created thousands of years
ago and have been linked to
ancient story tellings.They help
bring imagery and emotion to
poetry, stories, and dramas.
Stanza • A unit of lines grouped together.
• Similar to a paragraph in prose.
• A Stanza consists of two or more
lines of poetry that together form
one of the divisions of a poem.
• The stanzas of a poem are usually
of the same length and follow the
same pattern of meter and rhyme
and are used like paragraphs in a
Stanza • Some different types of stanzas
are as follows:
Couplets- stanzas of only two
lines which usually rhyme.
Whether or not we find what we are seeking
is idle, biologically speaking.
— Edna St. Vincent Millay (at the end of a sonnet)
Stanza Tercets - stanzas of three lines.The
three lines may or may not have the
same end rhyme. If all three lines
rhyme, this type of tercet is called a
Quatrain- stanzas of four lines which
can be written in any rhyme scheme.
Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of Spring
Your Winter garment of Repentance fling:
The Bird of Time has but a little way
To flutter--and the Bird is on the Wing.
• The pattern in which end rhyme occurs.
• Rhymes are types of poems which have
the the repetition of the same or
similar sounds at the end of two or
more words most often at the ends of
• This technique makes the poem easy to
remember and is therefore often used
in Nursery Rhymes.
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
All the King's horses, And all the
Couldn't put Humpty together
Stanza Types of Quatrains
– Alternating Quatrain- a four line
stanza rhyming "abab." From W.H.
Auden's "Leap BeforeYou Look“
– Envelope Stanza- a quatrain with the
rhyme scheme "abba", such that lines
2 and 3 are enclosed between the
rhymes of lines 1 and 4.Two of these
stanzas make up the Italian Octave
used in the Italian sonnet.This is from
Auden's "Look BeforeYou Leap"
The sense of danger must not disappear: a
The way is certainly both short and steep, b
However gradual it looks from here; a
Look if you like, but you will have to leap. b
The worried efforts of the busy heap, a
The dirt, the imprecision, and the beer b
Produce a few smart wisecracks every year; b
Laugh if you can, but you will have to leap. a
Rhythm • The pattern of beats or
stresses in a poem.
• Poets use patterns of stressed and unstressed
syllables to create a
She was a child and I was a child,
In this kingdom by the sea;
But we loved with a love that was
more than love –
I and my Annabel Lee;
Rhyme • The repetition of the same or
similar sounds,usually in stressed
syllables at the ends of lines, but
sometimes within a line.
There are strange things done in the
By the men who moil for gold;
n • The repetition of consonant
sounds at the beginnings of
Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled peppers.
Imagery • Representation of the five senses:
sight, taste, touch, sound, and
• Creates mental images about a
Imagery • Visual imagery: visual descriptions so
vivid they seem to come to life in the
reader's mind's when they are read, as
in the description of a very old fish in
Elizabeth Bishop's poem titled "The
Here and there
his brown skin hung in strips
like ancient wall-paper,
and its pattern of darker brown
was like wall-paper:
shapes like full-blown roses
strained and lost through age
Imagery • Auditory imagery: descriptions of
sound so vivid the reader seems almost
to hear them while reading the poem.
For example, Alexander Pope contrasts
the gentle sounds of a whispering wind
and a soft-running stream with the
harsher sound of waves crashing on the
shore in "Sound and Sense":
The sound must seem an echo to the sense:
Soft is the strain when Zephyr gently bows,
And the smooth stream in smoother numbers
But when the loud surges lash the sounding
The hoarse, rough verse should like the torrent
Imagery • Images of smell (olfactory imagery):
descriptions of smells so vivid they
seem almost to stimulate the reader's
own sense of smell while reading, as in
the poem, "Root Cellar," by Theodore
And what a congress of stinks!—
Roots ripe as old bait,
Pulpy stems, rank, silo-rich,
Leaf-mold, manure, lime, piled against slippery
Nothing would give up life:
Even the dirt kept breathing a small breath. (5-
Imagery • Tactile or "physical" imagery:
descriptions conveying a strong, vivid
sense of touch or physical sensation
that the reader can almost feel himself
or herself while reading, as in Robert
Frost's description of standing on a
ladder in "After Apple Picking“. Or in
the sensation of touch (and possibly
taste) in the fourth stanza of Helen
Chasin's poem, "TheWord Plum":
My instep arch not only keeps the ache,
It keeps the pressure of a ladder-round.
I feel the ladder sway as the boughs bend" (21-23).
The word plum is delicious
pout and push, luxury of
self-love, and savoring murmur
full in the mouth and falling
pierced, bitten, provoked into
juice, and tart flesh. (1-8).
• A comparison using like or as.
Talk of your cold! through the parka’s
fold it stabbed like a driven nail.
Metaphor • Describes one thing as if it were
The moon was a ghostly galleon
tossed upon cloudy seas.
Personification • Gives human characteristics to
…and the stars o’erhead
were dancing heel and toe…
• refers to the writer's attitude towards
the subject of a literary work as
indicated in the work itself.
• One way to think about tone in poetry
is to consider the speaker's literal "tone
of voice": just as with tone of voice, a
poem's tone may indicate an attitude
of joy, sadness, solemnity, silliness,
frustration, anger, puzzlement, etc.
Refrain • The repetition of one or more
phrases or lines at certain
intervals, usually at the end of
• Similar to the chorus in a song.
• The word 'Refrain' derives from
the Old French word refraindre
meaning to repeat.
Repetition • A word or phrase repeated within
a line or stanza.
• Sometimes, repetition reinforces
or even substitutes for meter (the
beat), the other chief controlling
factor of poetry.
Theme • The theme of the poem talks
about the central idea, the
thought behind what the poet
wants to convey. A theme can be
anything from a description about
a person or thing, a thought or
even a story. In short a theme
stands for whatever the poem is
Symbolism • A poem often conveys feelings, thoughts
and ideas using symbols, this technique
is known as symbolism.
• poetry has developed over hundreds of
years, certain symbolic meanings have
attached themselves to such things as
colors, places, times, and animals.
• You cannot merely plug these meanings
into a poem and expect to understand
the poem completely.Your own
knowledge, associations, and experience
are what will lead you to a deep and
personal connection to any poem.
• Sleep is often related to death.
• Dreams are linked to the future or fate.
• Seasons often represent ages: spring--youth, summer--
prime of life, autumn--middle age, winter--old age or death.
• Water is sometimes linked to the idea of birth or purification.
• Colors are often linked to emotions: red--anger, blue--
happiness, green--jealousy. They are also used to represent
states of being: black--death or evil, white--purity or
• Forests are often places of testing or challenge.
• Light--as the sun, the moon, stars, candles--often symbolizes
good, hope, freedom.
• Darkness is associated with evil, magic or the unknown.
• The moon has several associations. It is sometimes a
feminine symbol, sometimes associated with madness,
sometimes with resurrection.
• Expresses Personal thoughts and
• is a short poem which has the
characteristics of a song
• It pertains to a single mood or
feeling and is more personal in
• Sonnet, Elegy, and Ode are types
of Lyrical Poetry.
Sonnet • The Name sonnet derives from
Italian word sonneto which means
• is a relatively short poem
consisting of merely fourteen lines.
It is known to follow a strict
pattern of rhyme.
• Classified into Petrarchan,
Shakespearean, Spenserian and
Let me not to the marriage of true minds
Love is not love which alters when it alteration finds,
Or bends with the remover to remove:
O no! it is an ever-fixed mark
That looks on tempests and is never shaken;
It is the star to every wandering bark,
Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.
Love's not time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks
Within his bending sickle's compass come:
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom
If this be error and upon me proved,
I never writ, nor no man ever loved.
Elegy • This is a lyric poem which
expresses lament and mourning of
the dead, feeling of grief and
• The theme of this poem is death.
By John Milton
Yet once more, O ye Laurels, and once more
Ye Myrtles brown, with Ivy never-sear,
I com to pluck your Berries harsh and crude,
And with forc'd fingers rude,
Shatter your leaves before the mellowing year.
Bitter constraint, and sad occasion dear,
Compels me to disturb your season due:
For Lycidas is dead, dead ere his prime.
Ode • This is a poem of nobeling feeling,
expressed with dignity and praises
for some persons, objects, events
• It is exalted in tone and formal in
structure and content.
Ode on a Grecian Urn
By John Keats
Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness,
Thou foster-child of silence and slow time,
Sylvan historian, who canst thus express
A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:
What leaf-fring'd legend haunts about thy shape
Of deities or mortals, or of both,
InTempe or the dales of Arcady?
What men or gods are these? What maidens loth?
What mad pursuit?What struggle to escape?
What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?
• Types of poet that narrates a
story through the use of poetic
diction either real or imaginary.
• Narrative poem has special
• This form of poetry describes
events in a vivid way, using some
of the elements as short stories,
plot characters and dialogue.
Epic • This is a long and narrative poem
that normally tells a story about a
hero or an adventure.
• Epics can be oral stories or can be
poems in written form.
1. Popular or ancient poetry is
usually without definite author
and slow in the development.
2. Modern epic poetry has a
5 Greatest examples of epic poem
• Beowulf by Anonymous -This is an Old English language heroic epic
poem of anonymous authorship, dating as recorded in the Nowell
Codex manuscript from between the 8th to the 11th century and
relates events described as having occurred in what is now Denmark
• Metamorphoses by Ovid -This is a narrative poem in fifteen books
that describes the creation and history of the world.
• The Odyssey by Homer -The poem is, in part, a sequel to Homer’s
Iliad and mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus and his long
journey home to Ithaca following the fall ofTroy.
• Epic of Gilgamesh by Anonymous -This is an epic poem from
Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of
• The Iliad by Homer - oldest extant work of literature in the ancient
Greek language, making it the first work of European literature.
Ballad • It also tell a story, like epic poems
however, ballad poetry is often
based on a legend or a folk tale.
• Most ballads are written in four-
six stanzas and has a regular
rhythms and rhyme schemes.
• A ballad often features a refrain-a
regular repeated line or group of
by Unknown author
Oh the ocean waves may roll,
And the stormy winds may blow,
While we poor sailors go skipping aloft
And the land lubbers lay down below, below, below
And the land lubbers lay down below.
Social poem • This is either purely comic or
tragic and pictures the life of
• It may aim to bring changes in
Haiku • Special type of poetry which
originated from Japan.
• It’s the shortest type of poem and,
often, the most difficult to
• It consists of three lines that
generally do not rhyme.The lines
should have five, seven, and five
syllables in them.
haiku is Bashō's
fu-ru-i-ke ya (5)
ka-wa-zu to-bi-ko-mu (7)
mi-zu no o-to (5)
old pond . . .
a frog leaps in
Cinquain • This is five-line poem which also
originated in Japan.
• There are many different
variations of cinquain including
American Cinquains, didactic
cinquains, reverse cinquains,
butterfly cinquains and crown
Free Verse • A loosest type of poem.
• It can consists as many lines as
the writer wants and either rhyme
or not and has no fixed metrical
• This type of poem openly called as
“Poem with no rules.”
by Katherine Foreman
Some kind of attraction that is neither
Animal, vegetable, nor mineral, a power not
Solar, fusion, or magnetic
And it is all in my head that
I could see into his
And find myself sitting there.
Name poem • A special type of poetry belong to
descriptive poetry that use an
adjective to describe a person that
begins with each letter of that
Taylor likes each sentiment to be
Appropriate to its own time and place.
Years may roll like waves across her shore,
Leaving none of what there was before,
Obliterating every sign of grace.
Reason not, saysTaylor, with the sea!