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Project for Public Spaces - Streets as Places


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Fred Kent of Project for Public Spaces ( made this presentation on streets as places in Chicago on March 15, 2007. Contact PPS to invite him to speak in your city.

Published in: Technology, Real Estate

Project for Public Spaces - Streets as Places

  1. Streets as Places – Chicago, 15 th 2007
  3. <ul><li>48 U.S. States, 6 Canadian Provinces </li></ul><ul><li>26 Countries </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Communities </li></ul><ul><li>2 Million visitors to our web sites (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>24,000 people get our electronic newsletter </li></ul>32 years of Placemaking
  4. William H. (Holly) Whyte The Organization Man, 1956 The Exploding Metropolis, 1958 The Last Landscape, 1968 Plan for the City of New York, 1969 The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, 1980 City: Rediscovering the Center, 1988
  5. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Community/Neighborhood Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Placemaking…What is it </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we build our Cities around cars? </li></ul><ul><li>Best Cities/Best Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of Great Streets </li></ul><ul><li>New York Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Paradigm Shift </li></ul><ul><li>Placemaking Process </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a Campaign </li></ul>
  6. <ul><li>Designing neighborhoods with vibrant community centers </li></ul><ul><li>Creating shared-use streets </li></ul><ul><li>Providing quality public spaces that serve community needs </li></ul>Neighborhoods First Planning includes-
  7. Vision for neighborhood planning … creating great public spaces Placemaking is the foundation of creating livable communities.
  8. Vision for neighborhood planning … revitalizing centers
  9. Vision for neighborhood planning … reshaping streets and boulevards
  10. Environment Civic Engagement Public Health and Obesity Local Economy Smart Growth CITIES/ PLACES Sustainable Communities Transportation Livability Historic Preservation Convergence of Community Goals
  11. evening use volunteerism property values rent levels transit usage traffic data mode splits parking usage patterns pedestrian activity building conditions environmental data sanitation rating crime statistics street life social networks land-use patterns retail sales PLACE sociability local business ownership number of women, children & elderly Cooperative Neighborliness Diversity Stewardship Pride Friendly Interactive Welcoming Continuity Proximity Connectedness Walkable Convenient Accessible Readability Charm Attractive Historic Spiritual Sittable Walkable Safe Clean “ Green” Sustainable Celebrations Indigenous Special Real Useful Fun Active Vital What Makes a Place Great? access & linkage comfort & image uses & activities key attributes intangibles measurements
  12. <ul><li>Thoreau said “there is no value in life except what you choose to place upon it and no happiness in any place except what you bring to it yourself.” In this light, Placemaking is a dynamic human function: it is an act of liberation, of staking claim, and of beautification; it is true human empowerment. </li></ul>What is Placemaking?
  13. <ul><li>Placemaking is turning a neighborhood, town or city from a place you can’t wait to get through to one you never want to leave. </li></ul><ul><li>Placemaking is creating for everybody </li></ul><ul><li>Placemaking is the process of giving space a story that is shared by many. </li></ul>What is Placemaking?
  14. New Haven: Chapel Street
  19. If you plan for cars and traffic… you get more cars and traffic.
  20. The erosion of cities by automobiles proceeds as a kind of nibbling. Small nibbles at first but eventually hefty bites. A street is widened here, another is straightened there, a wide avenue is converted to one way flow and more land goes into parking. No one step in this process is in itself crucial but cumulatively the effect is enormous . Jane Jacobs, 1954
  23. <ul><li>A study of three generations of 9 year olds found that by 1990, the radius around the home that children were allowed to play had sunken to a ninth of what it had been in 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Louv </li></ul>
  25. © Will McWhinney, Paths of Change Storied Cultures Clustered Cultures
  28. When you design your community around people … you get more people.
  30. London BEFORE AFTER Trafalgar Square 100 Public Spaces Program
  31. <ul><li>Public Transit Enhancements </li></ul><ul><li>Street Improvements </li></ul>Kensington High Street Kensington High Street Oxford Street London
  32. <ul><li>ACCESS: Makes pedestrian movement safer </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTITY: A civic element </li></ul><ul><li>COMFORT: Reduces the negative impact of traffic on the surrounding communities </li></ul>Champs Elysees, Paris, France The Benefits of Boulevards
  33. Barcelona-A City of Boulevards
  34. Barcelona-A City of Boulevards
  35. Paris-A City of Boulevards
  36. Paris From Congested to Shared Streets in 5 years - Sidewalks widened - Buffered bike lanes - Dedicated bus lanes
  37. Paris-Champs Elysees
  38. Paris-Champs Elyees
  39. Paris-Boulevard du Montparnasse
  40. Paris-Boulevard du Montparnasse
  41. Paris-Side/Cross Streets
  42. Paris-Side/Cross Streets
  43. Paris-Sidewalk Cafe
  44. Case Study: Paris Plage
  48. Copenhagen Parking Lots Removed Gammel Strand 1988 Gammel Strand 1996
  49. Copenhagen
  50. Berlin
  51. Düsseldorf-Koenigsalle
  52. Düsseldorf-Koenigsalle
  53. Vienna
  54. Qualities of Great Streets <ul><li>Attractions & Destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Identity & Image </li></ul><ul><li>Active Edge Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Amenities </li></ul><ul><li>Management: Central to the Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse User Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic, Transit & the Pedestrian </li></ul><ul><li>Blending of uses and modes </li></ul><ul><li>Protects Neighborhoods </li></ul>
  55. Attractions & Destinations <ul><li>Curiosity, chaos, choices, with special places, rest spots, - the art of the path. </li></ul>
  56. Attractions & Destinations <ul><li>Clustered activity points of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>10+ Destinations – including food and markets, local retail, art, play, education, health/recreation . </li></ul>
  57. Active Edge Uses <ul><li>Active building bases </li></ul>
  58. Amenities <ul><li>Public and private seating options </li></ul><ul><li>Triangulation to support use – clusters of street amenities </li></ul>
  59. Management - Central to the Solution <ul><li>Programming – daily activity generators/cultural, civic and seasonal celebrations </li></ul>
  60. Draws diverse user groups <ul><li>No one group or use dominates </li></ul>
  61. Traffic, Transit & the Pedestrian <ul><li>Walkable – Places to go </li></ul><ul><li>Range of transportation options </li></ul>
  62. New York City Street Renaissance
  63. Donald Appleyard, UC Berkeley Professor of Urban Design, quantified the impact of traffic on social ties. HEAVY TRAFFIC 16,000 vehicles per day MEDIUM TRAFFIC 8,000 vehicles per day LIGHT TRAFFIC 2,000 vehicles per day 0.9 friends per person 3.1 acquaintances per person 1.3 friends per person 4.1 acquaintances per person 3 friends per person 6.3 acquaintances per person Broken Streets
  64. Broken Streets I keep my windows shut I spend more time in the back of my house I forbid my children to play in the streets I go out on the street less often LIGHT TRAFFIC STREET MEDIUM TRAFFIC STREET HEAVY TRAFFIC STREET New Yorkers deal with traffic in the following ways: 7.7% 26.0% 52.2% 56.5% 18.5% 5.1% 7.4% 21.7% 0.0% 2.6% 7.4% 43.5%
  65. The Truth About Traffic 6% Only 6% of shopping below 59 th Street in Manhattan involves a car. 6% DRIVE 69% WALK 24% USE TRANSIT Shoppers Are Walkers
  66. New York City-Herald Square
  67. New York City-Mulry Square Fixing an Unsafe Intersection BEFORE TEST PERIOD: 1996 – 2001 AFTER: TEST MADE PERMANENT
  68. Broadway Connecting Great Destinations Union Square Madison Square Herald Square Times Square
  70. Astor Place A void between two great neighborhoods…
  71. Astor Place … can support and showcase the best of NYC.
  72. A funnel for downtown traffic.. Finn Square
  73. ...can be a defining space for Tribeca. Finn Square
  74. Kenmare Square An unused square and roadway…
  75. Kenmare Square … can become a major amenity for shoppers and residents.
  76. West Broadway Where a shopping street fizzles…
  77. West Broadway … it can be brought back to life.
  78. Spring Street New York’s most successful neighborhoods…
  79. Spring Street … can better serve the pedestrians that bring their success.
  80. Grand Street Car storage space…
  81. Grand Street … can become the most valuable space in the neighborhood.
  82. Transportation paradigm shift Old Paradigm New Paradigm <ul><li>Large area planning </li></ul><ul><li>Arterials </li></ul><ul><li>Access to malls </li></ul><ul><li>Retail market area - large </li></ul><ul><li>Single family bedroom communities </li></ul><ul><li>Big roads, wide intersections, and parking lots </li></ul><ul><li>Big solutions (interstates/bypasses) </li></ul><ul><li>Standards-based (Green Book) </li></ul><ul><li>Performance is about mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Small area planning </li></ul><ul><li>Boulevards </li></ul><ul><li>Access to corner markets </li></ul><ul><li>Retail Market area - small </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed residential/office/services with local businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Bike paths, sidewalks, narrow streets, and transit </li></ul><ul><li>Small solutions (road connectivity, context sensitivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Place-based </li></ul><ul><li>Performance is about access and sense of place </li></ul>
  83. <ul><li>The community is the expert </li></ul><ul><li>You are creating a place not just a design </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t do it alone </li></ul><ul><li>They always say it can’t be done </li></ul><ul><li>You can see a lot just by observing </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a placemaking vision </li></ul><ul><li>Power of 10/Triangulation </li></ul><ul><li>Form supports function </li></ul><ul><li>Start with the petunias </li></ul><ul><li>Money is not the issue </li></ul><ul><li>You are never finished </li></ul>Principles of Creating Great Places Translating Ideas Into Action Implementation Planning & Outreach Techniques Underlying Ideas
  84. Project/Discipline Driven Approach Place Driven Development Approach
  85. Creating Great Places/Destinations The Power of 10 <ul><li>Chicago needs 10+ major places/destinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Each neighborhood/downtown needs 10+ places/destinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Each place/destination must have 10+ things to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect places to create a district with 100 -1000 things to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Triangulate or layer uses to create synergy among multiple points of interest and diverse activities. </li></ul>
  86. In Conclusion…. <ul><li>Good places breed healthy activity . </li></ul><ul><li>People attract people attract people . </li></ul><ul><li>When you focus on place, you do everything differently . </li></ul><ul><li>It takes many disciplines and skills to create a place . </li></ul><ul><li>It takes a place to create a community, and a </li></ul><ul><li>community to create a place . </li></ul><ul><li>Amenities that make a place comfortable are critical. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t know what you are going to end up with. </li></ul><ul><li>Each place has its own identity . </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t have anything less than excellence </li></ul><ul><li>You have to have zealous nuts . </li></ul>
  87. Building Communities through “Placemaking” <ul><li>Figure what you want to become </li></ul><ul><li>Create your vision </li></ul><ul><li>Where your primary and secondary destinations are/power of 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Then figure out how to connect each place with another </li></ul>
  88. It has to be a Campaign Develop a vision Become great communicators Search for impediments Organize a strong team Attack Complacency Produce short term wins Take on bigger challenges Connect change to the culture of the community People Who Make Dramatic Change By John Kotter
  89. When you come to a fork in the road, take it. – Yogi Berra BE BOLD!
  90. Making Places Newsletter Training & Conferences Publications & Resources
  92. Identity & Image <ul><li>Showcases local assets </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses, pedestrians, drivers, raise their behavior to this vision – sense of place. </li></ul>
  93. Active Edge Uses <ul><li>Active year around uses </li></ul><ul><li>Connections from both sides of street </li></ul>
  94. Seasonal Strategies
  95. Traffic, Transit & the Pedestrian <ul><li>Range of transportation options </li></ul>
  96. Flexibility – blending uses & modes <ul><li>Ground floors and retail that blur public and private space </li></ul>
  97. Protects neighborhoods <ul><li>Good transitions to local communities and desired street character </li></ul>