TOWN PLANNING ACT
Bombay Town planning act(1915)
The idea of development plan was flourished in this act
This was soon followed by Madras Town Planning Act in
The first comprehensive Act requiring the preparation of
development plans and authorieing its enforcement is
the Bombay Town and Country Planning Act,1954
This came into effect on 1957
It started a new way of thinking for systematic planning
Concept of “Garden City” was
introduced by ,Ebenezer Howard
(London,1898) in his small
remarkable book “To-morrow”(later
re-published as “Garden cities of
He wanted to design an alternative
for overcrowded and polluted
industrial cities of that century.
His solution centred in developing
smaller “garden cities” ,linked by
canal and transit and covered by a
permanent green belt.
He founded the Garden City
Association (later known as the
Town and Country Planning
Association or TCPA), which
created First Garden City, Ltd. in
1899 to create the garden city
of Letchworth and Welywn
FEATURES OF GARDEN CITY OF HOWARD
accommodate 32,000 people
6,000 acres (2,400 ha),
planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and
six radial boulevards, 120 ft (37 m) wide, extending from the centre.
The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full
population, another garden city would be developed nearby.
Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a
central city of 50,000 people, linked by road and rail
Howard pushed the idea of
garden city by a diagram” The
in trying to understand and
represent the attraction of city
he compared each city to a
magnet ,with individuals
represented as needles
attracted to magnet
WHERE THE PEOPLE GO?
depicts 3 magnets
disadvantages of town life
disadvantages of country
incorporating advantages of
town and country life
Town magnet Country magnet
1. Opportunities for
2. Choices of
3. High wages
6. Well-lit streets
1. Distance from
2. Closely out of
3. Isolation from
4. High rents
5. Dirty air
1. Natural beauty
3. Low rents
4. Bright sunshine
5. Abundant water
6. Fresh air
2. Lack of society
3. Lack of drainage
4. Low wages
5. Lack of
6. General decay
Town country magnet
Beauty of nature- peace all-over the places.
Social opportunity- cumulative growth.
Fields and parks of easy access- equal chances.
Low rents- high wages.
Low rates- plenty to do.
Low prices- no sweating.
Field for enterprise- flow of capital.
Pure air and water- good drainage.
Bright homes & gardens- no smoke, no slums.
Combination of advantage of town and country planning in the town
He proposed a town in a country
DEFINITION OF GARDEN CITY
Term means ‘a city in a garden ‘ or city of gardens’.
By Garden cities and Town Planning Association ,1919
“a garden city is a town designed for healthy living and
industry; of a size that makes possible a full measure of social
life; but not larger ;surrounded by a rural belt; the whole of the
land being in public ownership or held in trust for community”
Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained
communities surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate
areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.
The garden city introduced the use of greenbelts that have served
many uses including the preservation of agricultural and rural life,
nature and heritage conservation, recreation, pollution minimization,
and growth management.
Garden city tradition endowed urban planning with a social and
The garden city idea however, showed how both industrial estates
and collective retailing spaces could be used within a
comprehensive planning approach to serve public purposes.
CORE PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN CITY
PRINCIPLES OF GARDEN CITY
Co-operatve holding of land to insure that the advantage of
appreciation of land values goes to the community,not the private
Economic and social advantages of large scale planning
Establishment of cities of limited size, but at the same time
possessing a balanced agricultural industrial economy
Use of a surrounding green belt to serve as an agricultural
recreational area 18
FEATURES OF GARDEN CITY
1. Contains open spaces and gardens
around all the dwelling houses and
2. Has a population which is neither too
small nor too large.
3. It is a city owned by all citizens on a
4. Its is an independent entity having its
own civic life and affording all daily
needs with adequate spaces for
schools and other functional
5. It is a self sufficient unit having its own
6. It is surrounded by periphery by a green
7. It need not have the rapid transit
8. The surplus fund is utilised for the
development of the community itself
CONCEPTUAL LAYOUT OF A
• Circular city growing in a radial
manner or pattern.
• Divided into six equal wards, by
six main Boulevards that
radiated from the central
• Civic institutions (Town Hall,
Library, Hospital, Theatre,
Museum etc. ) are placed
around the central garden. 21
The central park enclosed by a
crystal palace acts as an arcade for
indoor shops and winter gardens.
• The streets for houses are formed
by a series of concentric ringed
tree lined avenues.
• Distance between each ring vary
between 3-5km .
• A 420 feet wide , 3 mile long, Grand
avenue which run in the center of
concentric rings , houses the
schools and churches and acts as a
continuous public park. 22
All the industries, factories and warehouses were
placed at the peripheral ring of the city.
The municipal railway was placed in another ring
closer to the industrial ring , so that the pressure of
excess transport on the city streets are reduced and
the city is connected to the rest of the nation.
GARDEN CITY CONCEPT IN PRACTICE
1. The first Garden City evolved out of Howard’s principles is
Letchworth Garden City designed by Raymond Unwin and
Barry Parker in 1903.
2. The second one to evolve was Welwyn Garden City designed
by Louis de Soissons and Frederic Osborn in 1920.
3. Another example was Radburn City designed by Clarence
Stein and Henry Wright in 1928. 24
LETCHWORTH, ENGLAND, UK
Letchworth- 35milesfrom london.
land of 3822 acres.
reserved green belt- 1300 acres.
designed for maximum of35ooo
in 30 years-developed
with15000 population and
150 shops, industries
Letchworth is a independent city with a complete municipal life of its
It is an industrial city with all the functions and activities of a self
It is planned as home for all kind of industries with facilities of cheap
light,power,power,fuel and water
Letchworth is meant for all lasses of people, the workers and the
Letchworth- A New Vision
Welwyn- 24 miles from London.
land of 2378 acres.
designed for a maximum of 40000
in 15 years-developed with10000
population and 50 shops,
Welwyn garden city was
the second garden city in
England (founded 1920)
and one of thefirst new
it is unique in being both
garden city and a new
town and exemplifies the
physical, social and
cultural planning ideals
RADBURN ,NEW JERSEY
• Radburn was planned by architects Clarence Stein and Henry Wright in
• It is America’s first garden community, serving as a world wide example of
the harmonious blending of private space and open area.
• Radburn provided a prototype for the new towns to meet the requirements for
contemporary good living.
• Radburn was designed to occupy one square mile of land and house some
• However, the Great Depression limited the development to only 149 acres..
• Although Radburn is smaller than planned, it still plays a very important role in
the history of urban planning.
• The Regional Planning Association of America (RPAA) used Radburn as a
garden city experiment.
Asia’s fastest growing cosmopolitan city
It is the home to IT industry and many scientific
Blessed with a good climate, gardens,peaks,natural
lakes, architectural land marks, hoping malls
Bangalore is the ideal gateway o India and beyond
FEATURE GARDEN CITY SATELLITE TOWNS
Dependence Self sufficient and self
Dependent on parent city
Gardens Around all houses and
Green belt Surrounded by green belt Situated outside green belt
of the parent city
Industries Permitted Not permitted
Rapid transit arrangement Not necessary Necessary in form of local
trains and buses
Some roads are arterial
and others are
Only one arterial road to
Zoning Essential May or may not have
DEVELOPMENTS INFLUENCED BY THE GARDEN
Glenrothes , United Kingdom
Bedford Park, London, United Kingdom
Covaresa , Valladolid, Spain
Den-en-chōfu, Ōta, Tokyo, Japan
Hellerau, Dresden, Germany
Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Marino, Dublin, Ireland
Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom
Pinelands, Cape Town, South Africa
Village Homes, Davis, California, United States
Reston, Virginia, United States
St Helier, London, United Kingdom
Telford, United Kingdom
The Garden Village, Kingston upon Hull