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urban open space

plaza and square

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- 1. • One of the most important elements of city design is the square or plaza. • It is the most important way of designing a good setting for public and commercial buildings in cities. A square or A Plaza
- 2. The Square “Is an open space available for civic purposes which is surrounded by important thoroughfares ”
- 3. The Plaza An open space available for civic purposes and commercial activities and usually attached to an important building.
- 4. Sometimes both the words square and Plaza Are used to describe the same open space which is framed by buildings and designed to provide successful setting for them.
- 5. A square or A plaza : • Is an open area commonly found in the heart of a town used for community gatherings. • Other names for town square are civic center , city square, urban square, market square , public square, plaza, piazza, and “Maydan“ or “Saha”.
- 6. St Mark’s Square, Venice St Peter’s Square, Rome Examples of squares Are examples of unique squares in the relationship between space, the surrounding buildings and the dome of the sky.
- 7. Most town squares are: • Hardscapes suitable for open markets, music concerts, political rallies, and other events that require firm ground. • At the center of the square there is often a fountain, well monument, or statue. A square or A plaza :
- 8. FUNCTION AND THE SQUARE
- 9. There are two main methods of categorizing squares – by function and by form. FUNCTION AND THE SQUARE Activity ina square is important for its vitalityand, therefore, also for its visualattraction.
- 10. FUNCTION AND THE SQUARE Alberti tells us that ‘. . . there ought to be several squares laid out in differentparts of thecity. The types of spaces needed in a city are: • The setting for a civic building. • The principal meeting places • Places for great ceremonial occasions • Spaces for entertainment around buildings such as theatres, cinemas, restaurants and cafes • Spaces for shopping, shopping street, arcades and markets • Spaces around which offices are grouped • Spaces around which residential accommodation is arranged and, finally • The spaces associated with urban traffic junctions.
- 11. The setting for religious buildings
- 12. Spaces for ceremonial occasions
- 13. Spaces for shopping, shopping streets
- 14. Open markets
- 15. Open markets
- 16. Cafes and restaurants
- 17. Spaces in front of office buildings
- 18. Spaces surrounding residential buildings
- 19. The spaces associated with urban traffic junctions
- 20. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
- 21. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE There are many ways to classify the form of square: For example: They can be classified according to regularity to: Regular shape squares: Which take the form of Circle – square- rectangle- triangle…..
- 22. Regular shape squares: • Represent clear urban image for the observer. • Vendome square- Paris Vendome square Paris Regular shape square
- 23. The form of the square Free shape squares: • Which take the form of irregular polygon….. Free shape squares
- 24. The form of the square For example: They can be classified according to the axis of symmetry to: Squares with one symmetric axis: St Peter’s square Rome: where there is one longitudinal symmetric axis emphasizes the existence of the church.
- 25. The form of the square For example: They can be classified according to the axis of symmetry to: Squares with two symmetric axes: Vendome square in Paris has two symmetric axes . The existence of multiple axes weaken the focus on specific direction.
- 26. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE • One of the most important theories in classifying the form of the square was outlined by Paul Zucker. • He mentioned five types of the square : 1. the closed square 2. the dominated square 3. the nuclear square 4. groupedsquares 5. and the amorphoussquare
- 27. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 1. The closed square: where the space is self-contained. • In Closed squares there are a complete enclosure where the square is surrounded by buildings from all sides and interrupted only by the streets leading to it.
- 28. place des vosges, Paris, France • Complete sense of enclosure • Geometrical shape
- 29. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 2. the dominated square: where the space is directed towards the main element. • The main element: can be a building such as a church- a palace – a town hall – a theater…….
- 30. Notre Dame cathedral, Paris
- 31. • The main element: can be a fountain or statue… fontana de trevi- Rome
- 32. • The main element: can be a void or natural element… maria theresien strasse- innsbruck- Austria
- 33. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 2. the dominated square: where the space is directed towards the main building. • The direction of a main street which opens into the square creates the axis to the main element Piazza del popolo square, Rome
- 34. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 3. the nuclear square: where space is formed around a center or nucleus • The nucleus can be an obelisk- a fountain or a monument. • The element is strong enough to attract the attention.
- 35. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 3. the nuclear square: where space is formed around a center or nucleus
- 36. Nelson's column London
- 37. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 4. grouped squares: where spatial units are combined together to form larger compositions. • Each unit “separated square” represents a self sufficient unit and a part of a larger composition.
- 38. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE • Types of grouped squares: • A. straight axis form: • When a group of squares different in size and form arranged in one direction it creates a straight axis form Imperial fora, Rome
- 39. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE • Types of grouped squares: • B. Non axial organization: • When a smaller square opens into a larger square with one of each sides this forms non axial organization Piazza and piazetta , Venice
- 40. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE • Types of grouped squares: • C. Multiple spaces surrounding one building. • A group of three or more squares of different shapes surround one dominant building palazzo podesta square, Italy
- 41. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE • Types of grouped squares: • D. Adjacent squares: • Two individual squares located beside each other and are separated by buildings or streets piazza d'erbe Italy
- 42. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 5. The amorphous square: is formless or having no specific shape • It doesn’t have the same aesthetic values as the other forms of squares.
- 43. THANKS

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