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• One of the most important elements of
city design is the square or plaza.
• It is the most important way of
designing a ...
The Square
“Is an open space available for civic purposes which is
surrounded by important thoroughfares ”
The Plaza
An open space available for civic purposes and commercial
activities and usually attached to an important buildi...
Sometimes both the words square and Plaza
Are used to describe the same open space which is framed by buildings
and design...
A square or A plaza :
• Is an open area commonly found in the heart of a town used
for community gatherings.
• Other names...
St Mark’s Square, Venice St Peter’s Square, Rome
Examples of squares
Are examples of unique squares in the relationship be...
Most town squares are:
• Hardscapes suitable for open markets, music concerts, political rallies,
and other events that re...
FUNCTION AND THE SQUARE
There are two main methods of categorizing squares – by
function and by form.
FUNCTION AND THE SQUARE
Activity ina square ...
FUNCTION AND THE SQUARE
Alberti tells us that ‘. . . there ought to be several squares laid out in
differentparts of theci...
The setting for religious buildings
Spaces for ceremonial occasions
Spaces for shopping, shopping streets
Open markets
Open markets
Cafes and restaurants
Spaces in front of office buildings
Spaces surrounding residential buildings
The spaces associated with urban
traffic junctions
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
There are many ways to classify the form of square:
For example:
They can be classified according t...
Regular shape squares:
• Represent clear urban image for the observer.
• Vendome square- Paris
Vendome square Paris Regula...
The form of the square
Free shape squares:
• Which take the form of irregular polygon…..
Free shape squares
The form of the square
For example:
They can be classified according to the axis of symmetry to:
Squares with one symmetri...
The form of the square
For example:
They can be classified according to the axis of symmetry to:
Squares with two symmetri...
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
• One of the most
important theories in
classifying the form of
the square was outlined
by Paul Zuc...
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
1. The closed square: where the
space is self-contained.
• In Closed squares there
are a complete e...
place des vosges, Paris, France
• Complete sense of enclosure
• Geometrical shape
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
2. the dominated square: where
the space is directed towards the
main element.
• The main element: ...
Notre Dame cathedral, Paris
• The main element: can be a fountain or statue…
fontana de trevi- Rome
• The main element: can be a void or natural element…
maria theresien strasse- innsbruck- Austria
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
2. the dominated square: where
the space is directed towards the
main building.
• The direction of ...
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
3. the nuclear square: where
space is formed around a
center or nucleus
• The nucleus can be an
obe...
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
3. the nuclear square: where
space is formed around a
center or nucleus
Nelson's column London
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
4. grouped squares: where spatial
units are combined together to
form larger compositions.
• Each u...
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
• Types of grouped squares:
• A. straight axis form:
• When a group of squares
different in size an...
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
• Types of grouped squares:
• B. Non axial organization:
• When a smaller square opens
into a large...
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
• Types of grouped squares:
• C. Multiple spaces surrounding
one building.
• A group of three or mo...
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
• Types of grouped squares:
• D. Adjacent squares:
• Two individual squares located
beside each oth...
THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
5. The amorphous square: is
formless or having no
specific shape
• It doesn’t have the same
aesthet...
THANKS
Plaza and square
Plaza and square
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Plaza and square

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plaza and square

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Plaza and square

  1. 1. • One of the most important elements of city design is the square or plaza. • It is the most important way of designing a good setting for public and commercial buildings in cities. A square or A Plaza
  2. 2. The Square “Is an open space available for civic purposes which is surrounded by important thoroughfares ”
  3. 3. The Plaza An open space available for civic purposes and commercial activities and usually attached to an important building.
  4. 4. Sometimes both the words square and Plaza Are used to describe the same open space which is framed by buildings and designed to provide successful setting for them.
  5. 5. A square or A plaza : • Is an open area commonly found in the heart of a town used for community gatherings. • Other names for town square are civic center , city square, urban square, market square , public square, plaza, piazza, and “Maydan“ or “Saha”.
  6. 6. St Mark’s Square, Venice St Peter’s Square, Rome Examples of squares Are examples of unique squares in the relationship between space, the surrounding buildings and the dome of the sky.
  7. 7. Most town squares are: • Hardscapes suitable for open markets, music concerts, political rallies, and other events that require firm ground. • At the center of the square there is often a fountain, well monument, or statue. A square or A plaza :
  8. 8. FUNCTION AND THE SQUARE
  9. 9. There are two main methods of categorizing squares – by function and by form. FUNCTION AND THE SQUARE Activity ina square is important for its vitalityand, therefore, also for its visualattraction.
  10. 10. FUNCTION AND THE SQUARE Alberti tells us that ‘. . . there ought to be several squares laid out in differentparts of thecity. The types of spaces needed in a city are: • The setting for a civic building. • The principal meeting places • Places for great ceremonial occasions • Spaces for entertainment around buildings such as theatres, cinemas, restaurants and cafes • Spaces for shopping, shopping street, arcades and markets • Spaces around which offices are grouped • Spaces around which residential accommodation is arranged and, finally • The spaces associated with urban traffic junctions.
  11. 11. The setting for religious buildings
  12. 12. Spaces for ceremonial occasions
  13. 13. Spaces for shopping, shopping streets
  14. 14. Open markets
  15. 15. Open markets
  16. 16. Cafes and restaurants
  17. 17. Spaces in front of office buildings
  18. 18. Spaces surrounding residential buildings
  19. 19. The spaces associated with urban traffic junctions
  20. 20. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE
  21. 21. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE There are many ways to classify the form of square: For example: They can be classified according to regularity to: Regular shape squares: Which take the form of Circle – square- rectangle- triangle…..
  22. 22. Regular shape squares: • Represent clear urban image for the observer. • Vendome square- Paris Vendome square Paris Regular shape square
  23. 23. The form of the square Free shape squares: • Which take the form of irregular polygon….. Free shape squares
  24. 24. The form of the square For example: They can be classified according to the axis of symmetry to: Squares with one symmetric axis: St Peter’s square Rome: where there is one longitudinal symmetric axis emphasizes the existence of the church.
  25. 25. The form of the square For example: They can be classified according to the axis of symmetry to: Squares with two symmetric axes: Vendome square in Paris has two symmetric axes . The existence of multiple axes weaken the focus on specific direction.
  26. 26. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE • One of the most important theories in classifying the form of the square was outlined by Paul Zucker. • He mentioned five types of the square : 1. the closed square 2. the dominated square 3. the nuclear square 4. groupedsquares 5. and the amorphoussquare
  27. 27. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 1. The closed square: where the space is self-contained. • In Closed squares there are a complete enclosure where the square is surrounded by buildings from all sides and interrupted only by the streets leading to it.
  28. 28. place des vosges, Paris, France • Complete sense of enclosure • Geometrical shape
  29. 29. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 2. the dominated square: where the space is directed towards the main element. • The main element: can be a building such as a church- a palace – a town hall – a theater…….
  30. 30. Notre Dame cathedral, Paris
  31. 31. • The main element: can be a fountain or statue… fontana de trevi- Rome
  32. 32. • The main element: can be a void or natural element… maria theresien strasse- innsbruck- Austria
  33. 33. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 2. the dominated square: where the space is directed towards the main building. • The direction of a main street which opens into the square creates the axis to the main element Piazza del popolo square, Rome
  34. 34. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 3. the nuclear square: where space is formed around a center or nucleus • The nucleus can be an obelisk- a fountain or a monument. • The element is strong enough to attract the attention.
  35. 35. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 3. the nuclear square: where space is formed around a center or nucleus
  36. 36. Nelson's column London
  37. 37. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 4. grouped squares: where spatial units are combined together to form larger compositions. • Each unit “separated square” represents a self sufficient unit and a part of a larger composition.
  38. 38. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE • Types of grouped squares: • A. straight axis form: • When a group of squares different in size and form arranged in one direction it creates a straight axis form Imperial fora, Rome
  39. 39. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE • Types of grouped squares: • B. Non axial organization: • When a smaller square opens into a larger square with one of each sides this forms non axial organization Piazza and piazetta , Venice
  40. 40. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE • Types of grouped squares: • C. Multiple spaces surrounding one building. • A group of three or more squares of different shapes surround one dominant building palazzo podesta square, Italy
  41. 41. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE • Types of grouped squares: • D. Adjacent squares: • Two individual squares located beside each other and are separated by buildings or streets piazza d'erbe Italy
  42. 42. THE FORM OF THE SQUARE 5. The amorphous square: is formless or having no specific shape • It doesn’t have the same aesthetic values as the other forms of squares.
  43. 43. THANKS

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