Creating the Waterfront City of the Future

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Placemaking Creating the Waterfront City of the Future or just a Great Market

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  • Holly Whyte was our mentor and founder. He was proving back in the 1950s that people really wanted to be in cities and wanted to be around other people. Our goal is to build on this work to create an international movement of placemakers.
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  • This diagram shows the ten places and the activities that would go on in each place.
  • Public Market – Connecting Granville Island with the Local and Regional Community Incubate & nurture new business Day Table Program Niche opportunities for value-added local products Edible BC Connect farmer / producer/ vendor with community Farmer’s Market Transportation Plan – Top 3 Objectives Increase pedestrian and bicycle access and activity Renew our marine facilities and boost ferry capacity Improve transit choice and connections
  • In our 30 years of work, we have found that people have never really lost their craving for great civic gathering spaces. People flock to civic spaces when they want to be with other people, to share ideas or become part of the collective expression of an idea or point of view. Uptown Waterloo’s public square has the potential to become such a great civic place and destination for the people of this City. As a parking lot, it’s opportunity to become a defining place for the city is quite limited. However, in either case, the space needs to be carefully planned and designed. But more than that, to be successful it must e actively programmed and managed on an ongoing basis and funds need to be set aside for that purpose NOW. That is why most if not all public spaces fail to realize their potential. Why parks sit empty; while plazas in the middle of busy commercial districts are unused except by skateboarders and the homeless; if you build it they will come, only if there is something to do there and a comfortable place to sit while you do it!
  • Creating the Waterfront City of the Future

    1. 1. Annapolis, Maryland August 25 th , 2010 Placemaking Creating the Waterfront City of the Future or just a Great Market
    2. 2. <ul><li>“ The blunt calculation by public officials that if they can’t make their downtowns and neighborhoods appealing, they can’t compete … all of these hinge on the deceptively simple challenge of creating places… that people intuitively like.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- Governing Magazine </li></ul>“ Converging Ideas around Place”
    3. 3. Cities of the Future <ul><li>Local Values and Assets </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic and Public Destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Placemaking leading to Sustainability </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>50 U.S. States, 7 Canadian Provinces </li></ul><ul><li>40 Countries </li></ul><ul><li>2500 Communities </li></ul><ul><li>2 Million visitors to our web sites (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>35,000 people get our electronic newsletter </li></ul>35 Years of Placemaking
    5. 5. Regions where Placemaking has Roots <ul><li>Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Czech Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Montenegro </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Kosovo </li></ul><ul><li>Croatia </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Slovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Armenia </li></ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Norway </li></ul><ul><li>UK/ Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina </li></ul><ul><li>Chile </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>St Kitts/Nevis </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Dubai </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Dhabi </li></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Houston </li></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles </li></ul>
    6. 6. PPS Program Areas and Transformative Agendas <ul><li>Program Areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Public Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Civic Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Downtowns </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed-Use </li></ul><ul><li>Developments </li></ul><ul><li>Campuses </li></ul><ul><li>Squares </li></ul><ul><li>Waterfronts </li></ul>Transformative Agendas: Building Community Through Transportation Public Markets and Local Economies Community Anchors / Architecture of Place Creating Public Multi-Use Destinations
    7. 7. William H. (Holly) Whyte <ul><li>The Organization Man, 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>The Exploding Metropolis, 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>The Last Landscape, 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for the City of New York, 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>City: Rediscovering the Center, 1988 </li></ul>PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    8. 8. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES Museum of Modern Art - NYC Blank walls are an end in themselves. They declare the supremacy of architecture over humanity, of a building over a person.
    9. 9. Benches are artifacts, the purpose of which is to punctuate architectural photographs. They are not so good for sitting. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    10. 10. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    11. 12. “ What attracts people most it would appear, is other people.”
    12. 13. One of the best things about water is the look and feel of it…It’s not right to put water before people and then keep them away from it. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    13. 14. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    14. 15. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES <ul><ul><li>If you want to seed a place with activity, put out food. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 19. If no one wants to go out to the Park, no one is going to stop them. ─ Yogi Berra PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    16. 20. It’s hard for people to realize that creating a place is more important than design. ─ PPS PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    17. 21. The street is the river of life, the place where we come to together, the pathway to the center. – William H. Whyte PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    18. 22. <ul><li>Comfort and Amenities </li></ul>What if we Built our Communities around Happiness and Community Wellbeing?
    19. 23. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    20. 26. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    21. 27. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    22. 28. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    23. 30. Overarching Ideas <ul><li>Placemaking </li></ul><ul><li>Process / The Community is the Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of Great Places </li></ul><ul><li>Power of 10 </li></ul>
    24. 31. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES Placemaking
    25. 32. When you focus on a place, you do everything differently.
    26. 33. <ul><li>Placemaking is a dynamic human function: it is an act of liberation, of staking claim, and of beautification; it is true human empowerment. </li></ul><ul><li>Placemaking is turning a neighborhood, town or city from a place you can’t wait to get through to one you never want to leave. </li></ul>What is Placemaking?
    27. 34. Metropolitan Planning Council - Chicago <ul><li>“ Placemaking” is an overarching idea and a hands-on tool for improving a Neighborhood, City or Region . It has the potential to be one of the most transformative ideas of this century </li></ul>PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    28. 35. What Makes a Great Place? PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES sociability uses & activities access & linkages comfort & image Welcoming evening use volunteerism street life transit usage parking usage patterns pedestrian activity Walkable Convenient Accessible Charm Clean Attractive Historic Safe building conditions environmental data sanitation rating crime stats Cooperative Neighborly property values land-use patterns retail sales business ownership Special Real Fun Active Vital Connected Key Attributes Intangibles Measurements PLACE
    29. 36. Project/Discipline Driven Approach <ul><li>Empowers Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Attracts partners, money & creative solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals become resources </li></ul><ul><li>Design supports uses </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions are flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement and commitment grow </li></ul>Place / Community Driven Approach
    30. 37. Convergence PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    31. 38. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES Environmental Sustainability Civil Society/ Democracy Building Public Health and Community Livability Community Development & Smart Growth Energy & Consumption Convergence of Movements PLACES Local Food Systems Transportation & Land Use Local Economies Historic Preservation
    32. 39. Benefits of Good Places PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES <ul><li>Draws a More Diverse Population </li></ul><ul><li>More women, elderly, and children </li></ul><ul><li>Greater ethnic & cultural pluralism </li></ul><ul><li>Support for wider range of activities & uses </li></ul><ul><li>New service, retail and customer niches </li></ul><ul><li>Variation & character in built environment </li></ul><ul><li>Instilled confidence to create one’s reality </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters More Frequent & Meaningful Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved sociability </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural exposure & interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange & preservation of information, wisdom & values </li></ul><ul><li>Bolstered barter system </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced race & class barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of interconnection </li></ul><ul><li>Nurtures & Defines </li></ul><ul><li>Community Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Greater community organization </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of dedication & volunteerism </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetuation of integrity & values </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mutual coercion, mutually agreed-upon” </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced necessity for municipal control </li></ul><ul><li>Self-managing </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes Public </li></ul><ul><li>Health & Comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Less crime </li></ul><ul><li>More outdoor physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Generally stimulating </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Improved environmental quality </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of freedom and limitlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Builds & Supports the Local Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Small-scale entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>More quality goods available </li></ul><ul><li>Higher real estate values </li></ul><ul><li>Local ownership, local value </li></ul><ul><li>More desirable jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased currency velocity </li></ul><ul><li>Greater tax revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced need for municipal services </li></ul><ul><li>Creates Improved Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>More walkable </li></ul><ul><li>Safe for pedestrians </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with public transit </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced need for cars & parking </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient use of time & money </li></ul><ul><li>Visually attractive destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Greater connections between uses </li></ul>Place
    33. 40. <ul><li>Layering of uses to create synergy (Triangulation) = </li></ul><ul><li>District </li></ul>Power of 10 PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES Region/City/Town/Neighborhood Destinations Place 10+ destinations 10+ places 10+ things to do
    34. 41. Power of 10 Destinations 1980
    35. 42. Power of 10 Destinations Today
    36. 43. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES Singapore - 10 Sites
    37. 44. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    38. 46. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    39. 47. 6. Sit and relax 1. Read the paper 8. Take a break from a bike ride 3. Learn about upcoming events 2. Window shopping for books 4. Go inside! 10. Have a conversation 7. Read someone else’s book 5. Walk 9 . Pet a dog Power of 10
    40. 48. Qualities of Great Waterfront Destinations <ul><li>Access and Linkage </li></ul><ul><li>Edge Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Attractions & Destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Identity & Image </li></ul><ul><li>Amenities </li></ul><ul><li>Water Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in Design </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Place Management </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse Funding Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Reach out like an octopus </li></ul>
    41. 49. Edge Uses <ul><li>Gateways and entrances </li></ul><ul><li>Focal points </li></ul>
    42. 51. Attractions & Destinations <ul><li>Choices of things to do </li></ul><ul><li>Triangulation opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Clustered activity around destinations </li></ul><ul><li>10+ places </li></ul>Creating Great Civic Spaces
    43. 52. Identity & Image <ul><li>Iconic Features </li></ul><ul><li>Historic highlights </li></ul>Creating Great Civic Spaces
    44. 53. Amenities <ul><li>Attracts cross-section of users </li></ul><ul><li>Source of local/regional civic pride </li></ul><ul><li>Comfortable places to sit </li></ul><ul><li>Food and markets </li></ul>
    45. 54. Water Uses <ul><li>Multiple ways of using or touching water </li></ul><ul><li>Water Play </li></ul><ul><li>Fountains </li></ul><ul><li>pools </li></ul>
    46. 56. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    47. 59. Flexible Design <ul><li>Overlapping and changing uses </li></ul><ul><li>Event Spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul>
    48. 60. Seasonal Strategies <ul><li>Amusement Features </li></ul><ul><li>Public Gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Antique Boat Show </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Festivals </li></ul>Creating Great Civic Spaces
    49. 61. Place Management <ul><li>Management through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security/Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing Destinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing Amenities </li></ul></ul>
    50. 62. Diverse Funding Base <ul><li>Public support </li></ul><ul><li>Private sponsorship </li></ul><ul><li>Broad partnerships </li></ul>Creating Great Civic Spaces
    51. 63. Access and Linkage <ul><li>Connected to adjacent areas </li></ul><ul><li>Range of transportation options </li></ul>
    52. 64. Reach out Like an Octopus
    53. 65. Great Public Spaces: Las Ramblas
    54. 67. Helsinki Waterfront
    55. 71. Voxholm, Sweden
    56. 77. Case Study: Bergen Harbor
    57. 80. Bergen Waterfront
    58. 81. A B C D E F
    59. 87. Stavanger Waterfront
    60. 96. Case Study: Granville Island
    61. 97. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    62. 98. Historic Context <ul><li>Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporation (CMHC) began managing the Island in 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Government of Canada invests $19.7-million to renew buildings and infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Private investors invited to participate in rehabilitation of various buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Public Market opens in 1979 </li></ul>PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    63. 111. Economic Impact <ul><li>Annual Economic Activity $215-million </li></ul><ul><li>Current Employment - 3,000 employed in 267 businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Receipts (1982 to 2006): $393-million </li></ul>PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    64. 112. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    65. 113. Placemaking Workshop – Recommendations <ul><li>Create a series of places throughout Granville Island </li></ul><ul><li>Improve / develop each of these spaces in partnership with tenants </li></ul><ul><li>Improve access to the Island through better connections </li></ul><ul><li>Develop new uses that will attract people in off-peak times </li></ul>PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    66. 115. Vancouver Forum on Multi-Use Public Destinations, June 2010 <ul><li>Public multi-use destinations like Granville Island have proven to be most successful, and we should replicate them more often. Why do we spend so much money on new developments that don’t work and that don’t attract people? </li></ul><ul><li>-Don’t lead with design . The design of multi-use destinations should be to create a “setting” for the uses that are occurring and that emphasize the products and the authentic aspects of the place. </li></ul><ul><li>-The importance of government learning to say “yes” to new ideas and developing stronger more trusting relationships with the non-profit and private sector. </li></ul><ul><li>-“If you think you’re done, you’re finished” – Developing spaces that are flexible and that “manage themselves.” In other words, ongoing and innovative management is key to create vibrant multi-use destinations. </li></ul><ul><li>-“The magic is in the mix.” We are moving beyond the simple concept of “mixed use” toward a technique of development that builds authentic places through establishing settings and uses that are intimately related, interconnected and interdependent. True sustainability comes from the relationships between uses, tenants, and the organizations within a place. </li></ul><ul><li>-Find creative funding strategies to keep rents low, attract a range of tenants and incentivize the presence of tenants who may not produce a lot of money for the site, but who bring a lot of foot traffic and are invested in the area. </li></ul>PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    67. 116. Munich Victualmarkt
    68. 121. Placemaking and Transportation: Streets as Places PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    69. 122. <ul><li>If we can develop and design streets so that they are wonderful, fulfilling places to be—community-building places, attractive for all people—then we will have successfully designed about one-third of the city directly and will have had an immense impact on the rest. </li></ul><ul><li>-- ALAN JACOBS </li></ul>PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    70. 123. When you design your community around cars and traffic …you get more cars and traffic. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    71. 124. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES “ The only way to make a busy road intersection safe is to make it feel dangerous.” Shared Streets STREETS AS PLACES Drachten, Holland
    72. 125. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES STREETS AS PLACES
    73. 126. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    74. 127. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    75. 128. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES “ If you want vehicles to behave like they are in a village, build a village.” &quot;Essentially, what it means is a transfer of power and responsibility from the state to the individual and the community. -Hans Monderman STREETS AS PLACES
    76. 129. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES Actual Crashes STREETS AS PLACES
    77. 130. When you design your community around people and places … you get more people and places. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    78. 131. Characteristics of Great Public Spaces PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES <ul><li>Good places breed healthy activity . </li></ul><ul><li>People attract people attract people . </li></ul><ul><li>When you focus on place, you do everything differently . </li></ul><ul><li>It takes many disciplines and skills to create a place . </li></ul><ul><li>It takes a community to create a place . </li></ul><ul><li>Amenities that make a place comfortable are critical . </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t know what you are going to end up with . </li></ul><ul><li>Each place has its own identity . </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t have anything less than excellence . </li></ul><ul><li>You have to have zealous nuts . </li></ul><ul><li>It has to be a… </li></ul>
    79. 132. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES It has to be a Campaign Develop a vision Become great communicators Search for impediments Organize a strong team Attack Complacency Produce short term wins Take on bigger challenges Connect change to the culture of the community People Who Make Dramatic Change By John Kotter
    80. 133. Corpus Christi, Texas
    81. 134. Case Study: Balboa Park, San Diego Placemaking - Creating Balboa Park of the Future
    82. 136. What if we Built the Waterfront around Places? <ul><li>How private can a public space be? </li></ul><ul><li>How public can a private Space be? </li></ul><ul><li>What is privatization? </li></ul><ul><li>When is privatization excessive? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we create destinations and then connect them? </li></ul>
    83. 137. Upcoming PPS Conference www.pps.org
    84. 138. www.pps.org Making Places Newsletter Training & Conferences Publications & Resources
    85. 139. Waterfront Benchmark Cities <ul><li>Major </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholm, Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Helsinki, Finland </li></ul><ul><li>Stavanger, Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Bergen, Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Istanbul </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Dubai </li></ul><ul><li>NYC – Battery Park City </li></ul>
    86. 140. Benchmark Cities – key issues <ul><li>Amsterdam – transit, destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore – waterfront, piers </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona – marinas, waterfront, esplanade </li></ul><ul><li>Bergen – octopus, destination </li></ul><ul><li>Brisbane – South Bank destination </li></ul><ul><li>Buenos Aires – street corners, waterfront </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago – Navy Pier destination </li></ul><ul><li>Copenhagen – Tivoli, two waterfront destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus Christi – marina </li></ul><ul><li>Detroit – Campus Martius destination, mgt </li></ul><ul><li>Dubai - Creek, marinas </li></ul><ul><li>Florence – Five squares </li></ul>
    87. 141. Benchmark Cities – key issues 2 <ul><li>Hamburg – waterfront, second level, beach </li></ul><ul><li>Helsinki – esplanade, waterfront destination </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong – promenade, iconic buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Istanbul – bazaars, streets, transit </li></ul><ul><li>Miami Beach – street as destination </li></ul><ul><li>Melbourne – Federation Square, destination </li></ul><ul><li>Munich – Victual Markt, destination </li></ul><ul><li>New York – Battery Park City, South Street Seaport </li></ul><ul><li>Oslo – Aker Brygge, destination </li></ul><ul><li>Paris – Paris Plage, destination </li></ul><ul><li>Porto – two level waterfront </li></ul>
    88. 142. Benchmark Cities – key issues 3 <ul><li>San Antonio – Riverwalk, destination </li></ul><ul><li>San Diego – marinas, case study </li></ul><ul><li>San Francisco - piers </li></ul><ul><li>Seattle – street car, piers </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore – three waterfront districts </li></ul><ul><li>Stavanger – management, destination </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholm - everything </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney – Darling Harbour, destination </li></ul><ul><li>Vancouver, Granville Island, destination </li></ul><ul><li>Venice – everything </li></ul>
    89. 143. 11 Steps to Creating Great Waterfronts <ul><li>1 Make public goals the primary objective </li></ul><ul><li>2 Create multiple destinations: The Power of Ten </li></ul><ul><li>3 Connect the destinations </li></ul><ul><li>4 Optimize public access </li></ul><ul><li>5 Encourage 24-hour activity by limiting residential development at major destinations </li></ul><ul><li>6 Use parks to connect destinations, not as destinations unto themselves </li></ul><ul><li>7 Design and program buildings to engage the public space </li></ul><ul><li>8 Support multiple modes of transportation and limit vehicular access </li></ul><ul><li>9 Integrate seasonal activities into each destination </li></ul><ul><li>10 Make stand-alone, iconic buildings serve multiple functions </li></ul><ul><li>11 Manage, manage, manage </li></ul>
    90. 144. Create a Vision for the Waterfront <ul><li>Start with the idea of 10 destinations/10 places/10 things to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Then connect them </li></ul><ul><li>Public use and public outcomes should be the primary objective </li></ul><ul><li>The best waterfront cities have complete public access all along the waterfront </li></ul><ul><li>Promenades and bike lanes serve the best waterfronts </li></ul><ul><li>The best waterfronts have limited roads along them, and good edge uses </li></ul>
    91. 147. Design Guidelines <ul><li>All developments should be proposed with destinations defined and connections planned </li></ul><ul><li>Scale of buildings immediately bordering a waterfront should not be towers but a continuous line of 4 – 8 storey buildings that actively engage the public spaces. Towers, where appropriate should be set back from the waterfront and be on platforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to the waterfront should be at 200 to 700 foot intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>Stand alone, iconic buildings need to be multi-use destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Ground level uses should be commercial or public institutional uses that support public activities </li></ul>
    92. 148. Case Study: Stockholm
    93. 149. Brisbane
    94. 150. Vancouver
    95. 151. Case Study: Battery Park City
    96. 152. Site 5
    97. 155. Connecting and Accessing the Waterfront <ul><li>Access to the waterfront is best achieved with Esplanades, Ramblas and linear parks that draw people to them and then pull them down to the water. </li></ul><ul><li>Parking should be off site with access being by trolley and ferries. </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle access other than transit should have little or no presence and access should be limited to deliveries. </li></ul>
    98. 156. Kunstragarten, Stockholm, Sweden
    99. 158. Great Public Spaces: Las Ramblas
    100. 159. Creating the Destinations <ul><li>Major destinations and active areas should have limited to no residential to allow evening activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Parks should not be at major destinations, except in rare circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal activities should be integral to each destination </li></ul>
    101. 161. Current PPS Waterfront Work <ul><li>Granville Island, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Kakaako Makai, Hawaii-Masterplan </li></ul><ul><li>Cleveland, Ohio-Masterplan </li></ul><ul><li>Bergen, Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Tulsa, Oklahoma </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus Christi, Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Key West, Florida </li></ul>
    102. 162. Kakaako Makai, Hawaii-Masterplan <ul><li>Master Planning Process for 12 acre Site in Emerging Entertainment District </li></ul><ul><li>No Residential: Surrounding Areas are Privatized by Luxury Condominiums </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Uses, Market, Performance Venues, etc </li></ul>
    103. 163. Cleveland, Ohio Lakefront Masterplan <ul><li>Master Planning Process for 100 acre Site </li></ul><ul><li>Transforming Single-Use Entertainment Zone into 24 </li></ul><ul><li>Short term Activation Plan for Phase 1 </li></ul>
    104. 164. Tulsa, Oklahoma

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