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Qualitative research second copy corrected


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Qualitative research second copy corrected

  1. 1. By Dr Vishal Agrawal& Dr Menaal Kaushal JR-1, Department of SPM SN Medical College, Agra
  2. 2.  Introduction  Difference Between Qualitative and Quantitative Study  The Concept Of Qualitative Research  Scope Of Qualitative Research  Where To Use  Where Not To Use  As Complementary To Quantitative Study  Steps in Qualitative Research  Types Of Sampling In Qualitative Research  Types Of Data& Forms Of Data  Qualitative Research Methods  Data Analysis
  3. 3. Consists of an investigation that:  seeks answers to a question  systematically uses a predefined procedures to answer the question set of  collects evidence  produces findings that were not determined in advance  produces findings that may be applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the study
  5. 5.  depends on: - The type of research question - The nature investigated of the problem being
  6. 6.  Includes collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative research refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols, and descriptions of things.  It helps to understand the perspectives of the local population, thus providing the culturally specific information about opinions, values& behaviors. (Social Context)
  7. 7. The Scope of Qualitative Research is to explore& understand through  Participant’s ‘Lived experience’  “Insider’s” perspectives  And to understand In the Context
  8. 8.  Developing and delineating program elements before a quantitative evaluation  Generating theory  Boosting the power of quantitative design& Broadening the observation field  Analyzing process and individual cases to explain the how and why of an outcome
  9. 9.  Qual Quant • Generate hypothesis • Tests Generalisability  Quant Qual • Guides Purposive Sampling • Helps Interprets Results Then Test it
  10. 10.  Seek to explore phenomena  Instruments use more  Seek to confirm hypotheses about phenomena flexible, iterative style of  Instruments use more rigid, eliciting& categorizing responses inflexible style of eliciting and to questions categorizing responses to questions  Use semi-structured methods such as interviews, focus  Use highly structured methods groups, and participant such as questionnaires, observation surveys& structured observation  To describe variation  To quantify variation  To describe& explain relationship  To predict causal relationship  To describe individual experiences& group norms  To describe characteristics of a population
  11. 11.  Open- ended  Closed- ended  Textual (obtained from audiotapes,  Numerical (obtained by videotapes, and field notes) assigning numerical values to responses)  Some aspects of the study are  Study design is stable from flexible beginning to end  Participant responses affect how and which questions researchers  Participant responses do not influence or determine how and ask next- Researcher may use which questions researchers ask probes next- Researcher is limited by the Questionnaire  Study design is iterative, that is, data collection and research questions are adjusted according  Study design is subject to statistical assumptions and to what is learned conditions
  12. 12. Example: Example: Open Ended Questions Close Ended Questions What are your opinions about Do you give OPV to your giving OPV to children, child during PPI rounds? during PPI rounds?  Yes, Always  No, Never Probe: Why do you think that giving OPV can harm your child?  Sometimes/Occasionally  Most of the times
  13. 13.  To inform what people are doing, thinking, and saying about a problem  To identify the important problem to be solved at community/ local/ policy levels  Generate a list of options for interventions  To investigate interventions how best to implement promising  To monitor response to interventions and assess how best to present its results to public and scientific community
  14. 14.  When numbers are needed to make a decision (what proportion of people )  Results are to be projected to the total population (unless generalisability ensured by researcher through appropriate measures)
  15. 15. Sampling Techniques Purposive Sampling data review and analysis is done in conjunction with data collection Chain- Referral Snow-ball Sampling Quota Sampling Is a Subtype of Purposive sampling, when we pre-fix the number of participants from every category in the study Finds& recruits “hidden populations,” not accessible through other sampling strategies.
  16. 16.  Unlike quantitative studies, here sample size Is not determined by conventional formulae, but depends on the point of Saturation.  Goal is to understand phenomena, not to represent population, so Select information-rich cases for intensive study  Minimum samples based on expected reasonable coverage, given the purpose of the study and constraints
  17. 17. 1. Establish the general problem to be investigated  Of interest to the researcher 2. Stating the purpose of the study     Based on problem analysis Arises from previous studies Guided by literature review Determined by who will use the research results 3. Develop a conceptual/theoretical framework for the study 4. Formulate general and specific research questions (aims and objectives) 5. Select a qualitative research design
  18. 18. 6 Select a sampling strategy  Establish site of the research  Selection of participants 7. Ensure trustworthiness of the study 8. Determine data collection methods and develop data collection tools 9. Establish how data will be managed and analyzed 10. Interpretation and discussion of findings 11. Prepare research report
  19. 19. 1
  20. 20.  The case study  Ethnography  Grounded theory  Phenomenology  Participatory research
  21. 21. QUANTITATIVE STUDY Phenomenon under Study Analysis (Terminal) Context 4
  22. 22. QUALITATIVE STUDY Analysis Analysis (Terminal) Phenomenon under Study Phenomenon under Study Context Context Phenomenon under Study Analysis
  23. 23.  Strong Rapport Building over long time through prolonged (>1yr) field work.  Captures field in Holism  Rapport building over short time through ice- breaking activities  Concept of Engaging in Selection rather than Holism (see next slide)  Researcher increasingly merges with the field& becomes  Researcher remains a “Short time Visitor” or Can use data “as one of them” i.e. a part of collectors from the local the real people‟s lives to community understand the community “as naturally as possible”  Data collection is not iterative but can be staggered (see next slide)  Data collection is iterative& over prolonged time periods  Analytical process is Terminal  Analytical process is Iterative
  24. 24. ONE- SHORT/ APPLIED QUALITATIVE STUDY Phenomenon under Study Context Staggered Data Collection Analysis (Terminal) 4
  25. 25. Types Of Qualitative Qualitative Data Data Indirect Semi- Direct Inferential/ Abstract Participant‟s Report May not be Accurate May differ with Different Perceptions Validity of Representation Direct Represents The Actual Phenomenon Very Closely
  26. 26. Forms Of Qualitative Data Field Notes Of: Participant Observations Observations made during FGDs& InDepth Interviews Audio- Video Recordings Of: • Focused Group Discussions • In- Depth Interviews Diagrams E.g. Sociograms
  27. 27. Includes: Participant Observation In- Depth Interviews Focused Group Discussions (FGD)
  28. 28. A qualitative research method in which researchers gather data either by observing or by both observing and participating, to varying degrees, in the study-community‟s daily activities, in community settings relevant to the research questions. Ex at bars, brothels, and health clinic waiting areas, religious settings.
  29. 29.  Approach the participants in their own environment  Don‟t divulge the confidence- Don‟t leak out secrets!  Take Field notes- record ALL observations, even informal communications established can be recorded
  30. 30. Appearance might indicate membership in groups or in subpopulations of interest to the study, such as profession, social status, socioeconomic class, religion or ethnicity Verbal behavior& interactions Who speaks to whom and for how long; who initiates interaction; languages or dialects spoken; tone of voice, Gender, age, ethnicity, and profession of speakers; dynamics of interaction
  31. 31. Personal space How close people stand to one another. What individuals‟ preferences concerning personal space suggest about their relationships. Human traffic People who enter, leave, and spend time at the observation site. Where people enter and exit; how long they stay; who they are (ethnicity, age, gender); whether they are alone or accompanied; number of people. People who stand out Identify people who receive a lot of attention from others. What differentiates them from others; whether people consult them or they approach other people; whether they seem to be strangers or well known by others present.
  32. 32.  Complete observer  Behind one-way mirror, invisible role  Observer as participant  Known, overt observer  Participant as observer  Pseudo-member, research role known
  33. 33.  It provides Familiarity with the cultural milieu  It can Uncover The Unknown Factors- It Can provide information previously unknown to researchers that is crucial for project design, data collection& interpretation of other data.  But:  It is Time- consuming- at least 1yr in the field, (as in traditional study pattern)  It is Memory based, so discipline yourself  It is Inherently Subjective so, Practice to be objective rather than narrating subjectively.
  34. 34.  Determine :  the purpose of the participant observation activity as related to the overall research objectives.  the population(s) to be observed.  the venues in which you would like to observe them.  Investigate possible sites for participant observation.  Select the site(s), time(s) of day, and date(s)
  35. 35.  Decide how field staff will divide up or pair off to cover all sites most effectively.  Consider how you will present yourself, both in terms of appearance and how you will explain your purpose to others if necessary.  Plan how and if you will take notes during the participant observation activity. Remember to take your field notebook and a pen.
  36. 36.  Schedule time soon after participant observation to expand your notes.  Type your notes into computer files using the standard format set for the study
  37. 37.  A qualitative research method in which a researcher/interviewer gathers data about an individual‟s perspectives on a specific topic(s) through a semi-structured exchange with the individual.
  38. 38.  The researcher/interviewer engages with the individual by posing questions in a neutral manner, listening attentively to responses, and asking follow-up questions and probes based on those responses.
  39. 39.  Elicit feelings  Thoughts  Opinions  Previous experiences  The meaning people give to certain events
  40. 40.  Informal conversational interview  General interview- guide approach  Standardized open-ended interview  Closed fixed-response interview  Combination of approaches
  41. 41.  Experience and behavior questions  Opinion and value questions  Feeling questions  Knowledge questions  Background/demographic questions
  42. 42. Focus group discussions are group discussions with a small group of individuals from a well defined target population on preselected topics that rely on interaction between group members, under the guidance of a trained facilitator. Each participant is stimulated by the comments of others and in turn stimulate them.
  43. 43. It is a qualitative method which helps to find out the „How‟ „Why‟ of human behaviour It can provide insight into how a group thinks about an issue, the range of opinions and ideas, and variations the that inconsistencies exist in a and particular community in terms of beliefs and their experiences &practices.
  44. 44.  Get a variety of perspectives/reactions to a certain issue  In a short time  Mainly for eliciting opinions, values, feelings in the group- the group norms
  45. 45.  The topic should is narrowly focused  Selection of participants is also focused by targeting individuals who meet specific criteria  Topic should be of interest to both the investigator and respondents.  The emphasis should be on interaction between or among the group members.
  46. 46.  Setting the objectives  Determine the target population  Plan the number of of sessions  Follow the guidelines regarding selection of participants, role of moderator/facilitator etc  Developing F.G.D. guide  Conducting F.G.D.  Analysis and interpretation of result.
  47. 47.  Cost-effective  Quality of data enhanced by group participants  Can quickly assess the extent to which there is agreement or diversity on an issue  Enjoyable for participants
  48. 48.  Outside of natural setting  Silences the minority view  Responses by each participant may be Constrained  Restricts number of questions that can be asked  Requires group process skills  Confidentiality not assured  Explores major themes, but fails to catch subtle differences
  49. 49.  Homogenous  Strangers  6-10 people  Discussion Time: 1- 2 hours  2 FGD per type of respondent  Facilitators: Moderator and note taker  Prepare discussion guide
  50. 50.  Adequate knowledge on background information about the topic and experience in conducting FGD  Good listening skills  Leadership skills  Relationship with the participants  Patience and flexibility  Clothing
  51. 51.  Orient the group in a proper manner.  Put forth issues/ sub issues in appropriate questions.  Create a non-judgmental environment in which group members feel free to express.  Encourage interaction between participants.  Encourage quiet participants to speak up and quieten garrulous talkers.
  52. 52.  Guide the direction of discussion so that it does not wander too far from the designated focus.  Pace the discussion appropriate for the participant  Subtly control the time allotted to each question and to the entire discussion.
  53. 53.  Primarily an observer, tape record the session.  Observe the nature of interaction, record non-verbal communication & level of consensus  Should know what type of data she/he is expected to collect.  If facilitator has omitted a question from the guide, the recorder can point them out (at the end).  Identify the speakers. Note down the first few words every time a new person speaks and make brief notes of the content.
  54. 54.  Diagrammatic representation of entire session of FGD  Offers a useful method of conceptualising group dynamics drawing comparisons between focus groups & reflecting on moderating technique
  55. 55. FOCUSED GROUP DISCUSSION (SOCIOGRAM) 1 11 2 3 10 4 9 5 8 7 6
  56. 56.  Qualitative data analysis is a non-linear/ iterative process  Numerous rounds of questioning, reflecting, rephrasing, analysing, th eorising, verifying observation, interview, Discussion after or Focus each Group
  57. 57.  During data collection  Reading – Data Immersion – reading and re-reading  Coding – listen to the data for emerging themes and begin to attach labels or codes to the texts that represent the themes  After data collection  Displaying – the Themes (all information)  Developing hypotheses, questioning and verification  Reducing – from the displayed data identify the main points
  58. 58.  At all stages – searching for core meanings of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours described  Overall interpretation  Identify how themes relate to each other  Explain how study questions are answered  Explain what the findings mean beyond the context of your study
  59. 59. I. Reading / Data immersion 1. Read for content  Are you obtaining the types of information you intended to collect  Identify emergent explanations themes and develop tentative  Note (new / surprising) topics that need to be explored in further fieldwork 2. Note the quality of the data  Have you obtained superficial or rich& deep responses  How vivid and detailed are the descriptions of observations  Is there sufficient contextual detail
  60. 60. 3. Develop a system to identify problems in the data (Audit Trail) - Read identifying patterns - After identifying themes, examine how these are patterned  Do the themes occur in all or some of the data  Is there a relationship between themes  Are there contradictory responses  Are there gaps in understanding – these require further exploration
  61. 61.  Problems in the quality of the data require a review of:  How you are asking questions (neutral or leading)  The venue  The composition of the groups  The style and characteristics of the interviewer  How soon after the field activity are notes recorded
  62. 62. II. Coding –  No standard rules of how to code  Emergent  Borrowed  Record coding decisions  Record codes, definitions, and revisions  Usually - insert codes / labels into the margins  Building theme related files  Cut and paste together into one file similarly coded blocks of text  NB identifiers that help you to identify the original source  Identify sub-themes and explore them in greater depth
  63. 63.  Coding qualitative data does not mean reducing it to numbers, rather it is a means of indexing your data  While all grounded theory involves coding, not all coding is grounded theory, again it is often assumed that because you are coding you are ‘doing’ grounded theory, this is not always the case  It is a common misconception that computers can code qualitative data for you, to put it simply, they can’t.
  64. 64. III. Displaying data  Capture the variation or richness of each theme  Note differences between individuals and sub-groups  Return to the data and examine evidence that supports each sub-theme
  65. 65. IV. Developing hypotheses, questioning and verification  Extract meaning from the data  Do the categories developed make sense?  What pieces of information contradict my emerging ideas?  What pieces of information are missing or underdeveloped?  What other opinions should be taken into account?  How do my own biases influence the data collection and analysis process?
  66. 66. V. Data reduction i.e. distill the information to make visible the most essential concepts and relationships  Get an overall sense of the data  Distinguish primary/main and secondary/subthemes  Separate essential from non-essential data  Use visual devices – e.g. matrices, diagrams
  67. 67. VI. Interpretation i.e. identifying the core meaning of the data, remaining faithful to to the perspectives of the study participants but with wider social and theoretical relevance
  68. 68.  Consistent with data collected  Verified with respondents  Present multiple perspectives (convergent and divergent views)  Did you go beyond what you expected to find?
  69. 69. As a way to increase credibility, but also check transferability, dependability and confirmability triangulation is often used. Triangulation = a cross-checking of information and conclusions in research, brought about by the use of multiple procedures or sources. If there is agreement between these, there is support of the interpretation of data. Using triangulation does not mean you get a certain truth, but you get closer to it – reflexivity is still necessary.
  70. 70.  Method triangulation: Comparing data that come from the use of different methods. These could be both quantitative and qualitative. Eg. first using a questionaire to ask about eating habits in a school, and then conduct focus group interviews afterwards.  Researcher triangulation: Involves using different people as researchers. This increased the confirmability and credibility of conclusions. Without this data collection and conclusions might be affected by researcher bias.  Other triangulation thechniques include data triangulation and theory triangulation.
  71. 71.  NATURALISTIC – Natural setting as source of data  INDUCTIVE – It seeks to build theory from data & avoid imposing researcher‟s own categories of analysis  HOLISTIC – It looks at the phenomenon in totality & takes an overall perspective  TRIANGULATION – Comparing data collected from different methods  FLEXIBLE DESIGN- Emergent design as opposed to pre-determined design in quantitative methods  INTERPRETIVE – Aimed at discovering the meaning the events have for the individuals who experience them & interpretation of these meaning by researcher  PARTICULARISTIC - Guided by objectives  PROBES - are neutral questions, phrases, sounds, and even gestures interviewers use to encourage participants to elaborate on their answers and explain why or how
  72. 72. .
  73. 73.  If a Questionnaire developed in a different cultural setting is “imported” and used, then one must check its validity in one’s setting – Qualitative methods in the initial phase, work towards avoiding this type III error.  e.g. In U.S. It may be fairly normal to ask a single lady how many children she has, but this Question would create a havoc if asked by the researcher in India or Pakistan.  Conversely, in U.S or U.K, it may again be a valid question to ask a mother of two, whether she is married, but this would prove to be disastrous if asked to an Indian mother.  Thus, in essence, Type III errors deal with right answers to wrong questions!