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Narrative research


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Narrative research

  1. 1. START 1
  2. 2. NARRATIVE RESEARCH Narrative Narrative CLICK TO OPEN Presented by: 1. Danang Wiratnoko S200140036 2. Eko Mulyono S200140053 3. Muvid Baihaqi S200140042 RESEARCH METHOD (On Education, Language and Literature) 2
  3. 3. NARRATIVE RESEARCH Key Ideas 1. Why is the study called Narrative study? 2. What are the characteristics of Narrative Research? 3. How is the research procedure? 4. How is the data collected? 5. How is the data analyzed? 6. How is the data reported? 3
  4. 4. NARRATIVE RESEARCH Narrative inquiry is the interdisciplinary study of the activities involved in generating and analyzing stories of life experiences (e.g., life histories, narrative interviews, journals, diaries, memoirs, autobiographies, biographies) and reporting that kind of research. (Schwandt, 2007, p. 204) What is narrative inquiry? 4
  5. 5. NARRATIVE RESEARCH In this approach, the researchers describe the lives of individuals, collect and tell stories about people’s lives, and write narratives of individual experiences. As a distinct form of qualitative research, a narrative typically focuses on studying a single person, gathering data through the collection of stories, reporting individual experiences, and discussing the meaning of those experiences for the individual. why is it called narrative research? 5
  6. 6. Example Research Narrative research focuses on studying a single person and gathering data through the collection of stories that are used to construct a narrative about the individual’s experience and the meanings he/she attributes to them. Examples of Narrative Research:  A study of the experiences of an autistic student who has moved from a self-contained program to an inclusion setting  A study of the experiences of a high school track star who has been moved on to a championship-winning university track team 6
  7. 7. What are some contexts or settings of narrative inquiry? Narrative researchers often “describe in detail the setting or context in which the participant experiences the central phenomenon” (Creswell, 2008, p. 522). The setting may include the participant’s workplace, home, social organization, or school. It is the place where “a story physically occurs” (Creswell). One popular setting or site for narrative inquiries in the field of education is, of course, the school. 7
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF NARRATIVE RESEARCH 1. Flexibility. Narrative inquiry--like the life experience that it investigates-- is a complex and ever-changing. Moreover, narrative researchers often emphasize finding direction for their research in their participant’s stories. 2. Experiences of an individual. Narrative inquiry often focuses on the experiences of one or a few participants rather than those of a larger group. 3. Life stories. Like much of qualitative research, narrative inquiry explores life experience. However, it describes and analyzes these experiences using the language of “story.” For instance, the field texts or data that narrative researchers gather may include, or be called, “stories” of life experience and include plots and characters and so forth. 4. Like other forms of qualitative research, narrative inquiry often involves coding field texts (e.g., interview transcripts, letters from the participant to the researcher) for themes or categories. 8
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF NARRATIVE RESEARCH 5. The narrative researcher may use the aforementioned themes or categories to restory (or retell or develop a metastory) from the field texts. 6. Narrative inquiry emphasizes relationships or collaboration between the researcher and others (Pinnegar & Daynes, 2007). 7. Many narrative researchers emphasize the importance of learning from their participants 8. Narrative inquiry is a literary form of qualitative research (Creswell, 2008) that places a special emphasis on writing. 9
  10. 10. RESEARCH PROCEDURE OF NARRATIVE RESEARCH Identify a phenomenon that addresses an educational problem Purposefully select an individual to learn about the phenomenon Write a story about the participant’s personal and social experiences Validate the accuracy of the report Collaborate with participant storyteller in all phases of research Restory or retell The individual’s storyCollect stories from the individual that Reflect personal experience Have them Tell story Collect other Field texts Build in past, Present, future Build in place or setting Describe their story Analyze story for themes 10
  11. 11. How is the data collected? Using primarily interviews and documents 11
  12. 12. How is the data analyzed? Analyzing data for stories, “restorying” stories, developing themes, often using a chronology 12
  13. 13. How is data reported Developing a narrative about the stories of an individual’s life: 1. Bioghraphy 2. Autobiography 3. Journal 4. Diaries 5. Life story 6. Drama 7. Novel, etc. 13
  14. 14. General Structure of Study 1. Introduction: (problem, questions) 2. Research procedures: (a narrative, significance of individual, data collection, analysis outcomes) 3. Report of stories 4. Individuals theorize about their lives 5. Narrative segments identified 6. Patterns of meaning identified (events, processes, epiphanies, themes) 7. Summary (Adapted from Denzin, 1989a, 1989b 14
  15. 15. Aristotle •This Greek philosopher discovered over 2000 years ago, that a narrative must contain a: •Beginning •Middle •End •This theory has developed into the five main stages of narrative which is more recognizable to a modern audience: •Exposition- The scene is set •Development- More characters are introduced •Complication- Something happens to disrupt the life of a character •Climax- Decisive moment reached •Resolution- Matters are resolved 15
  16. 16. Tvzetan Todorov • A Bulgarian theorist. • He came up with the idea that all narratives start with equilibrium where everything is balanced. Then a problem comes along where the balanced is disrupted and to close the problem is solved, returning to the equilibrium. Equilibrium Disequilibrium (problem) New equilibrium 16
  17. 17. Equilibrium, Disequilibrium, and New Equilibrium  Opposing forces or influences are balanced. • The lack of balance in the middle of the film. • The solution. • Restored balance. He’s happy being single. Meet his ex and fall in love. His ex lied that she have an amnesia. They both got married. 17
  18. 18. Vladimir Propp •Russian •Born 17th April 1895 •Died At 75 •Russian& Soviet Formalist Vladimir Propp developed a character theory for studying media texts and productions, which indicates that there were 7 broad character types in the 100 tales he analysed. He studies Russian fairytales and discovered that in stories there were always 8 types of characters evident. These are: the hero, the villain, the donor, the dispatcher, the false hero, the helper, the princess and her father. 18
  19. 19. Claude Levi-Strauss •French •Born 28th November 1908 •Died 30 October 2009(Aged 100) Levi-Strauss looked at narrative structure in terms of binary oppositions. Binary oppositions are sets of opposite values which reveal the structure of media texts. An example would be GOOD and EVIL – we understand the concept of GOOD as being the opposite of EVIL. Levi –Strauss was not so interested in looking at the order in which events were arranged in the plot. He looked instead for deeper arrangements of themes. For example, if we look at Science Fiction films we can identify a series of binary oppositions. 19
  20. 20. Order Beginning: Introduce characters, place Middle: Events happen (Rising Action) Use details Keep the events progressing forward (No two pages on how the dude made a sandwich). End: Result (Falling Action) 20
  21. 21. Dialogue Indent for each new speaker. Use quotation marks. Use commas inside the quotation marks, then who said the words. 21
  22. 22. Example “Wow,” Jim said as he walked down the eerie hallway to his destination. “I can’t believe it!” “Hey, wait up!” Joe yelled, as he saw his friends shadow disappear around the corner. Blah, blah, blah, blah Blah, blah Blah, blah Blah, Blah,blah Blah, blah Blah, blah Blah, blah Blah, blah Blah. “Relax bro,” Jim retorted. 22
  23. 23. Back and Forth Conversation “Look at that,” Jim said. “I know,” whispered Joe. “How do you know?” “I just do.” “Yeah, right.” (You can stop using their names each time when they talk back and forth right away). 23
  24. 24. Another Example (Autobiography) 24
  25. 25. Narrative Vocabulary •Cause and effect: Do something, something happens •Chronological order: Events go in order of TIME • Flashback: Go back in time to explain an event or feeling •Foreshadowing: Hints to future events •Adjectives: Describe nouns •Sensory language: See, hear, feel, taste, smell 25
  26. 26. Figurative Language •Idiom: Piece of cake •Personification: The wind was screaming… •Oxymoron: Jumbo shrimp •Simile: She was like a tiger on the court. •Metaphor: She was a tiger… •Hyperbole: I am so hungry I could eat a horse. I am so tired I could die. •Alliteration: Billy Bob bought a bright blue BMW. 26
  27. 27. Point of View First Person: Character is the narrator. Use “I” and “we” Second Person: When the narrator puts the reader in place of the main character. Uses “you” Third Person Limited: Only see the perspective of one character. Third Person Omniscient: The narrator knows the thoughts of all characters. You see the story from many perspectives. 27