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1. Danang Wiratnoko S200140036
2. Eko Mulyono S200140053
3. Muvid Baihaqi S200140042
(On Education, Language and Literature)
1. Why is the study called Narrative study?
2. What are the characteristics of Narrative
3. How is the research procedure?
4. How is the data collected?
5. How is the data analyzed?
6. How is the data reported?
Narrative inquiry is the interdisciplinary study of the
activities involved in generating and analyzing stories
of life experiences (e.g., life histories, narrative
interviews, journals, diaries, memoirs, autobiographies,
biographies) and reporting that kind of research.
(Schwandt, 2007, p. 204)
What is narrative
In this approach, the researchers describe the lives of
individuals, collect and tell stories about people’s lives,
and write narratives of individual experiences. As a
distinct form of qualitative research, a narrative typically
focuses on studying a single person, gathering data
through the collection of stories, reporting individual
experiences, and discussing the meaning of those
experiences for the individual.
why is it called narrative research?
Narrative research focuses on studying a single person
and gathering data through the collection of stories that
are used to construct a narrative about the individual’s
experience and the meanings he/she attributes to them.
Examples of Narrative Research:
A study of the experiences of an autistic student who
has moved from a self-contained program to an inclusion
A study of the experiences of a high school track star
who has been moved on to a championship-winning
university track team
What are some contexts or settings of narrative inquiry?
Narrative researchers often “describe in detail the setting
or context in which the participant experiences the
central phenomenon” (Creswell, 2008, p. 522). The
setting may include the participant’s workplace, home,
social organization, or school. It is the place where “a
story physically occurs” (Creswell). One popular setting
or site for narrative inquiries in the field of education is,
of course, the school.
CHARACTERISTICS OF NARRATIVE RESEARCH
1. Flexibility. Narrative inquiry--like the life experience that it investigates--
is a complex and ever-changing. Moreover, narrative researchers often
emphasize finding direction for their research in their participant’s
2. Experiences of an individual. Narrative inquiry often focuses on the
experiences of one or a few participants rather than those of a larger
3. Life stories. Like much of qualitative research, narrative inquiry explores
life experience. However, it describes and analyzes these experiences
using the language of “story.” For instance, the field texts or data that
narrative researchers gather may include, or be called, “stories” of life
experience and include plots and characters and so forth.
4. Like other forms of qualitative research, narrative inquiry often involves
coding field texts (e.g., interview transcripts, letters from the participant
to the researcher) for themes or categories.
CHARACTERISTICS OF NARRATIVE RESEARCH
5. The narrative researcher may use the aforementioned
themes or categories to restory (or retell or develop a
metastory) from the field texts.
6. Narrative inquiry emphasizes relationships or
collaboration between the researcher and others
(Pinnegar & Daynes, 2007).
7. Many narrative researchers emphasize the importance
of learning from their participants
8. Narrative inquiry is a literary form of qualitative
research (Creswell, 2008) that places a special emphasis
RESEARCH PROCEDURE OF NARRATIVE RESEARCH
Identify a phenomenon
an educational problem
Purposefully select an
individual to learn
about the phenomenon
Write a story about the
and social experiences
Validate the accuracy of
participant storyteller in
all phases of research
Restory or retell
storyCollect stories from
the individual that
Reflect personal experience
Build in past,
Build in place
How is the data collected?
Using primarily interviews and documents
How is the data analyzed?
Analyzing data for stories, “restorying” stories,
developing themes, often using a chronology
How is data reported
Developing a narrative about the stories of an
5. Life story
7. Novel, etc.
General Structure of Study
1. Introduction: (problem, questions)
2. Research procedures: (a narrative, significance of
individual, data collection, analysis outcomes)
3. Report of stories
4. Individuals theorize about their lives
5. Narrative segments identified
6. Patterns of meaning identified (events, processes,
7. Summary (Adapted from Denzin, 1989a, 1989b
•This Greek philosopher discovered over 2000 years ago, that a
narrative must contain a:
•This theory has developed into the five main stages of narrative
which is more recognizable to a modern audience:
•Exposition- The scene is set
•Development- More characters are introduced
•Complication- Something happens to disrupt the life of a
•Climax- Decisive moment reached
•Resolution- Matters are resolved
• A Bulgarian theorist.
• He came up with the idea that all
narratives start with equilibrium
where everything is balanced.
Then a problem comes along
where the balanced is disrupted
and to close the problem is
solved, returning to the
Equilibrium Disequilibrium (problem) New equilibrium
Equilibrium, Disequilibrium, and New Equilibrium
Opposing forces or influences are balanced.
• The lack of balance in the middle of the film.
• The solution.
• Restored balance.
He’s happy being single.
Meet his ex and fall in love.
His ex lied that she
have an amnesia.
They both got married.
•Born 17th April 1895
•Died At 75
•Russian& Soviet Formalist
Vladimir Propp developed a character theory
for studying media texts and productions,
which indicates that there were 7
broad character types in the 100 tales he
He studies Russian fairytales and discovered
that in stories there were always 8 types of
characters evident. These are: the hero, the
villain, the donor, the dispatcher, the false
hero, the helper, the princess and her father.
•Born 28th November 1908
•Died 30 October 2009(Aged 100)
Levi-Strauss looked at narrative structure in terms of
Binary oppositions are sets of opposite values which
reveal the structure of media texts. An example would
be GOOD and EVIL – we understand the concept of
GOOD as being the opposite of EVIL.
Levi –Strauss was not so interested in looking at the
order in which events were arranged in the plot. He
looked instead for deeper arrangements of themes. For
example, if we look at Science Fiction films we can
identify a series of binary oppositions.
Introduce characters, place
Events happen (Rising Action)
Keep the events progressing forward (No
two pages on how the dude made a sandwich).
Result (Falling Action)
Indent for each new speaker.
Use quotation marks.
Use commas inside the
quotation marks, then who
said the words.
“Wow,” Jim said as he walked down the
eerie hallway to his destination. “I can’t
“Hey, wait up!” Joe yelled, as he saw his
friends shadow disappear around the
corner. Blah, blah, blah, blah Blah, blah
Blah, blah Blah, Blah,blah Blah, blah Blah,
blah Blah, blah Blah, blah Blah.
“Relax bro,” Jim retorted.
Back and Forth Conversation
“Look at that,” Jim said.
“I know,” whispered Joe.
“How do you know?”
“I just do.”
(You can stop using their names each time
when they talk back and forth right away).
•Cause and effect: Do something, something happens
•Chronological order: Events go in order of TIME
• Flashback: Go back in time to explain an event or
•Foreshadowing: Hints to future events
•Adjectives: Describe nouns
•Sensory language: See, hear, feel, taste, smell
•Idiom: Piece of cake
•Personification: The wind was screaming…
•Oxymoron: Jumbo shrimp
•Simile: She was like a tiger on the court.
•Metaphor: She was a tiger…
•Hyperbole: I am so hungry I could eat a horse. I
am so tired I could die.
•Alliteration: Billy Bob bought a bright blue BMW.
Point of View
First Person: Character is the narrator. Use “I” and “we”
Second Person: When the narrator puts the reader in
place of the main character. Uses “you”
Third Person Limited: Only see the perspective of one
Third Person Omniscient: The narrator knows the
thoughts of all characters. You see the story from many