Weather and Water


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Weather and Water

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  2. 2. Uneven Heating of Earth’s Surface<br />Earth rotates on an axis (23.5’)<br />So sunlight hits Earth at different angles<br />Creates Climate Zones<br />Tropics<br />Region between Tropic of Cancer (23.5’N) and Tropic of Capricorn (23.5’S)<br />Most direct sunlight<br />Polar Zones<br />Region north of the Arctic Circle (66.5’N) and South of the Antarctic Circle (66.5’S)<br />Least amount of direct sunlight<br />Temperate Zones<br />Latitudes between the Tropics and the Polar Zones<br />Seasonal changes; no extreme heat or cold<br />These climate zones are important and create BIOMES<br />
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  4. 4. Wind, Precipitation and Currents<br />Our planet's rotation produces a force on all bodies moving relative to the Earth<br />Due to Earth's approximately spherical shape, this force is greatest at the poles and least at the Equator.<br />"Coriolis effect” the force that causes the direction of winds and ocean currents to be deflected<br />Northern Hemisphere wind and currents deflected toward the right<br />Southern Hemisphere  wind and currents deflected to the left.<br />
  5. 5. Climate vs. Weather<br />Weather<br />Day-to-day conditions of Earth's atmosphere<br />precipitation, humidity, temperature, etc.<br />Changes every day<br />Climate<br />The average, year-after-year, conditions (temperature and precipitation) that prevail in a specific region<br />Microclimate<br />Climate in a specific area that varies from the surrounding climate region<br />Ex. The burrow of a Kangaroo rat in the New Mexico desert (dark and cool)<br />
  6. 6. Biomes<br />Terrestrial ecosystems that cover a large region of Earth<br />Characterized by communities of plants and other organisms adapted to the climate and other abiotic factors<br />
  7. 7. Major Terrestrial Biomes<br />Tropical Rainforest<br />Tropical Dry Forest<br />Tropical Savannah<br />Desert<br />Temperate Grasslands (Prairie)<br />Chaparral /shrubland<br />Temperate Deciduous forest<br />North Western Coniferous<br />Boreal Forest/Taiga<br />Tundra<br />
  8. 8. Water<br />The UniversalSolvent<br />
  9. 9. A little bit about water<br />Water is the biological medium on Earth<br />Universal Solvent<br />Solvent: the substance that the solute (salt) is dissovled in (water)<br />Solute: substance (salt) that is dissolved in a liquid<br />Solution: when solutes are uniformly distributed throughout a water solvent<br />All living organisms require water more than any other substance<br />Most cells are surrounded by water, and cells themselves are about 70-95% water<br />The abundance of water is the main reason the Earth is habitable<br />
  10. 10. LE 3-2<br />
  11. 11. Water as the Universal Solvent<br />Water is an effective solvent because it readily forms hydrogen bonds <br />When an ionic compound is dissolved in water, each ion is surrounded by a sphere of water molecules, a hydration shell<br />Water can also dissolve compounds made of nonionic polar molecules<br />Even large polar molecules such as proteins can dissolve in water if they have ionic and polar regions<br />
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  13. 13. LE 3-7a<br /> Lysozyme molecule<br />in a nonaqueous environment.<br />
  14. 14. LE 3-7b<br />Lysozyme molecule in a aqueous environment.<br />
  15. 15. Properties of water<br /><ul><li>Cohesive and Adhesivebehavior
  16. 16. Temperaturemoderation
  17. 17. Expansion uponfreezing
  18. 18. Versatility as a solvent</li></li></ul><li>Transpiration:<br />Evaporation of water through the leaves of plants<br />“stomata” are the tiny pores in the leaves of plants through which water escapes<br />
  19. 19. <ul><li>Cohesive and Adhesivebehavior
  20. 20. Cohesion: whensimilarmolecules stick together (droplet of water)
  21. 21. hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together
  22. 22. Cohesion helps the transport of water against gravity in plants
  23. 23. Adhesion: whenunlikemolecules stick together (water on glass)
  24. 24. Adhesion of water to plant cell walls also helps to counter gravity
  25. 25. How does water getfromroots to the leaves of a talltree?</li></li></ul><li>Cohesion accounts for SURFACE TENSION<br />Surface tension is a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid<br />
  26. 26. Moderation of Temperature<br />Water absorbs heat from warmer air and releases stored heat to cooler air<br />Water can absorb or release a large amount of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature<br />
  27. 27. Weather and Water<br />Coastal Areas<br />During the hot day, the ocean/lake will absorb energy from the air so that it feels cooler<br />At night, when the air is cooler, the water releases all the stored energy, making it warmer at night<br />“moderate” temperature<br />Inland areas (no water nearby)<br />During the hot day, there is NO water to absorb heat so it is realllllyy hot (think desert)<br />At night, no energy is release, so it gets very cold<br />
  28. 28. Heat and Temperature<br />Kinetic energy is the energy of motion<br /><ul><li>Heat is a measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion
  29. 29. Temperature measures the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of molecules</li></li></ul><li>Water’s High Specific Heat<br />The specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of that substance to change its temperature by 1ºC<br />Water’s high specific heat minimizes temperature fluctuations to within limits that permit life<br />Heat is absorbed when hydrogen bonds break<br />Heat is released when hydrogen bonds form<br />
  30. 30. Evaporative Cooling<br />Evaporation is transformation of a substance from liquid to gas<br />Heat of vaporization is the heat a liquid must absorb for 1 gram to be converted to gas<br />As a liquid evaporates, its remaining surface cools, a process called evaporative cooling <br />Evaporative cooling of water helps stabilize temperatures in organisms and bodies of water<br />“Sweating” liquid to gas requires heat…this heat comes from inside our body<br />What does the saying “It’s not the heat, it’s the humidity” mean?<br />Humidity: water vapor in the air<br />If there is more water in the air, it is harder for water molecules to evaporate off your skin…so how do you feel?<br />Hot and sticky!<br />