The Hydrosphere And Biosphere


Published on

Published in: Technology, Sports

The Hydrosphere And Biosphere

  1. 1. The Hydrosphere & The Biosphere<br />Chapter 3, Section 3<br />
  2. 2. Name the three major processes in the water cycle.<br />Describe the properties of ocean water.<br />Describe the two types of ocean currents.<br />Explain how the ocean regulates Earth’s temperature.<br />Discuss the factors that confine life to the biosphere.<br />Explain the difference between open and closed systems.<br />Learning Objectives <br />
  3. 3. The Water Cycle<br />
  4. 4. The continuous movement of water into the air, onto land, and then back to water sources.<br />Evaporation<br />Condensation<br />Precipitation<br />The Water Cycle<br />
  5. 5. Liquid water is heated by the sun and then rises into the atmosphere.<br />Water continually evaporates from Earth’s oceans, lakes, streams, and soil. <br />Majority of water evaporates from the oceans.<br />Evaporation<br />
  6. 6. Water vapor forms water droplets on dust particles.<br />Water droplets form clouds, in which the droplets collide, stick together, create heavier and larger droplets.<br />Condensation<br />
  7. 7. After the larger droplets form during condensation, they fall from the clouds as:<br />Rain<br />Snow<br />Sleet<br />Hail<br />Precipitation<br />
  8. 8. The Water Cycle<br />
  9. 9. The Hydrosphere<br />The Earth’s Oceans, <br />Fresh Water & Groundwater<br />
  10. 10. The hydrosphere includes all of the water on or near the Earth’s surface.<br />This includes water in the oceans, lakes, rivers, wetlands, polar ice caps, soil, rock layers beneath Earth’s surface, and clouds.<br />The Hydrosphere<br />
  11. 11. The Earth’s Oceans<br />
  12. 12. All of the ocean’s are joined. <br />World Ocean – The single, large, interconnected body of water.<br />70% of Earth’s surface<br />Largest Ocean = Pacific Ocean<br />Smallest Ocean = Arctic Ocean<br />The Earth’s Oceans<br />
  13. 13. Ocean water contains more salts than fresh water.<br />Most of the salt is sodium chloride.<br />The salt comes from:<br />dissolved out of rocks on land and carried down the rivers into the oceans.<br />Underwater volcanic eruptions<br />Ocean Water - Salinity<br />
  14. 14. Salinity – concentration of all the dissolved salts. (Average – 3.5% by weight)<br />Salinity is lower in places that get a lot of rain or fresh water that flows into the ocean.<br />Salinity is higher where water evaporates rapidly and leaves the salt behind.<br />Ocean Water<br />
  15. 15. The surface of the ocean is warmed by the sun.<br />The depths of the ocean have temperatures slightly above freezing.<br />Thermocline – The boundary between the warm and cold layers where the temperature falls rapidly with depth.<br />Ocean Water – Temp. Zones<br />
  16. 16. Ocean Temperature Zones<br />
  17. 17. One of the most important functions of the world ocean is to absorb and store energy from the sunlight.<br />The capacity of the ocean to absorb and store energy from sunlight regulates temperature in the Earth’s atmosphere.<br />The world ocean absorbs over half of the solar radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface.<br />Temperature Regulation<br />
  18. 18. Local temperatures in different areas of the planet are also regulated by the world ocean.<br />Currents that circulate warm water cause the land areas they flow past to have a more moderate climate.<br />Temperature Regulation<br />
  19. 19. Surface Currents - Streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface of the ocean.<br />Result from global wind patterns<br />May be warm-water or cold-water currents<br />Influence the climate of land areas they flow past<br />Ocean Currents<br />
  20. 20. Deep Currents – Streamlike movements of water that flow very slowly along the ocean floor.<br />Form when cold, dense water from the poles sinks below warmer, less dense ocean water and flows toward the equator.<br />The densest, coldest water is located off the coast of Antarctica.<br />This cold water sinks to the bottom of the ocean and moves very slowly northward to produce the Antarctic Bottom Water.<br />Ocean Currents<br />
  21. 21. Ocean Currents<br />
  22. 22. 3% of all the water on Earth is fresh water.<br />Most is locked up in icecaps and glaciers<br />Also found in lakes, rivers, wetlands, the soil, rock layers below the surface, in the atmosphere<br />Fresh Water<br />
  23. 23. A network of streams that drains an area of land<br />Contains all the land drained by the river including the main river and its tributaries<br />Tributaries – smaller streams or rivers that flow into larger ones<br />River Systems<br />
  24. 24. The Mississippi River<br />
  25. 25. Rain and melting snow sink into ground and run off the land.<br />Some ends up in streams and rivers but most trickles down through the ground and collects as groundwater.<br />Less than 1% of all water on Earth.<br />Groundwater<br />
  26. 26. Aquifer - A rock layer that stores and allows the flow of groundwater.<br />Recharge Zone – The surface of the land where water enters an aquifer.<br />Aquifer<br />
  27. 27. United States Aquifers<br />
  28. 28. The Biosphere<br />Life on Earth<br />
  29. 29. Narrow layer around Earth’s surface in which life can exist.<br />The uppermost part of the geosphere<br />Most of the hydrosphere<br />Lower part of the atmosphere.<br />Biosphere is located near the Earth’s surface because most of the sunlight is available near the surface.<br />The Biosphere<br />
  30. 30. Most life requires liquid water, moderate temperatures, and a source of energy.<br />The materials that organisms require must be continually recycled.<br />Gravity allows a planet to maintain an atmosphere.<br />Why Life Exists on Earth…<br />
  31. 31. Energy Flow in the Biosphere:<br />Open and Closed Systems<br />
  32. 32. When an organism in the biosphere dies, its body is broken down and the matter in its body becomes available to other organisms.<br />This matter is continually recycled.<br />Energy must be supplied constantly.<br />Energy Flow in the Biosphere<br />
  33. 33. Closed system<br />Energy enters and leaves the system, but matter does not.<br />Earth is a closed system because the only thing that enters is energy from the sun and the only thing that leaves is heat.<br />Open System<br />Both matter and energy are exchanged between a system and the surrounding environment.<br />The Earth was once an open system.<br />Matter was added to early Earth as it was hit by comets and meteorites.<br />Energy Flow in the Biosphere<br />