<ul><li>Used almost universally for purification, cleansing & blessing </li></ul>
<ul><li>The life and climate of Earth as we know it would not exist without the unique properties of water.  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>An atom is: </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest unit of a pure substance (element) which cannot be broken down by ordin...
<ul><li>Elemental units of which everything is made </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Diameters:  one to a few hundred millionths o...
<ul><li>Atoms bonded together </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bonds: </li></ul><ul><li>forces that hold atoms together </li></ul><ul><li>form when atoms with correct fit collid...
<ul><li>Covalent bond:  atoms collide and electrons rearrange so that some of the electrons are shared by the two atoms </...
<ul><li>Polar covalent bond:  unequal sharing of electrons </li></ul>
<ul><li>Attraction between a hydrogen atom and an atom such as oxygen or nitrogen that is either part of another molecule ...
<ul><li>Specific heat: the amount of heat required to raise or lower the temperature of 1 gram of substance 1 degree C. </...
<ul><li>Because water acts as a thermal buffer (aka has high thermal capacity),  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water in the ocean ...
<ul><li>It requires energy to change states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid to liquid ...
<ul><li>Heat of vaporization: The amount of heat required for 1 gram of a substance to be converted from a liquid to a gas...
<ul><li>Because water has a high heat of vaporization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps our bodies and our planet to maintai...
<ul><li>Most substances increase in density as temperature decreases because the molecules making up the substance begin t...
<ul><li>Water is unique in the way temperature affects its density.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The density of water increases ...
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Unique Properties Of Water New

  1. 2. <ul><li>Used almost universally for purification, cleansing & blessing </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>The life and climate of Earth as we know it would not exist without the unique properties of water. </li></ul><ul><li>The unique properties of water are based on the chemical makeup of the water molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to understand, these unique properties and the makeup of a water molecule, let’s explore a little basic chemistry. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>An atom is: </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest unit of a pure substance (element) which cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of protons, neutrons and electrons </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Elemental units of which everything is made </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Diameters: one to a few hundred millionths of an inch </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Atoms bonded together </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Bonds: </li></ul><ul><li>forces that hold atoms together </li></ul><ul><li>form when atoms with correct fit collide with sufficient force </li></ul><ul><li>store energy </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Covalent bond: atoms collide and electrons rearrange so that some of the electrons are shared by the two atoms </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Polar covalent bond: unequal sharing of electrons </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Attraction between a hydrogen atom and an atom such as oxygen or nitrogen that is either part of another molecule or located at a distant site on the same molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the hydrogen atom and the other atom must be involved in a polar covalent bond </li></ul><ul><li>This causes water molecules to “stick together” </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Specific heat: the amount of heat required to raise or lower the temperature of 1 gram of substance 1 degree C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of heat energy is required to break hydrogen bonds, therefore water resists temperature change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When water is heated, most of the heat is used to break hydrogen bonds and not much is left over to raise the temperature of the water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In other words, water can absorb a lot of heat with little change in temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of this water acts as a thermal buffer. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Because water acts as a thermal buffer (aka has high thermal capacity), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water in the ocean resists temperature change by heating and cooling more slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This results in a lower range of temperature in the ocean temperatures than in the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean temperatures vary by no more than 2°C (3.5°F) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This creates a hospitable environment for life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially in coastal areas which experience warmer winters and cooler summers due to proximity to ocean. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water is described as having a high thermal capacity </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>It requires energy to change states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid to liquid  Heat of fusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid to gas  Heat of vaporization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas to liquid  Heat of condensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid to solid  Heat of fusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid to gas  Heat of sublimation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Heat of vaporization: The amount of heat required for 1 gram of a substance to be converted from a liquid to a gas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonds make it difficult for water molecules to escape the liquid state and are responsible for water's high heat of vaporization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hydrogen bonds must be broken before water can evaporate and this requires considerable energy. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Because water has a high heat of vaporization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps our bodies and our planet to maintain our temperature within a tolerable range. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When we get hot and sweat, water evaporates from our skin and cools us. Since the evaporation of water requires a considerable amount of energy, it is very effective in cooling us. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water helps moderate global climate by absorbing solar radiation and dissipating the heat by evaporation of surface water. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Most substances increase in density as temperature decreases because the molecules making up the substance begin to move more slowly and get closer together. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Water is unique in the way temperature affects its density. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The density of water increases as it is cooled to 4 degrees C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and then its density begins to decrease as the temperature decreases to 0 degrees C, the freezing point of water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the freezing point is approached, hydrogen bonds relax and form a crystal lattice that keeps molecules further apart than they are in liquid water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the reason why ice floats and ponds don't freeze solid. </li></ul></ul>

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