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Heating Earth’s Surface and
Atmosphere Chapter 2
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2.1 Earth-Sun Relationship
+
 Earth-Sun Relationships

 Earth’s   two principal motions:
   Rotation   is the spinning of the earth on its axis,
  ...
+
+
+
 Earth-Sun Relationships

 What    causes the seasons?
   The gradual change in day length accounts for
    some of th...
+
 Earth-Sun Relationship

When   the sun is directly overhead (at 90°) the
 solar rays are more concentrated and more in...
+
 Earth-Sun Relationships
 Earth’s   orientation
+
 Earth- Sun Relationship
+
 Earth-Sun Relationships
  Solstices:
   The   summer solstice occurs on or about June 21 or 22.
     At that time, t...
+
 Earth-Sun Relationships

  Equinoxes:

   Equinox   means that day and night are equal.
   The autumnal (fall) equin...
+
 Earth-Sun Relationships
+




2.2 Energy, Temperature and Heat
+
 Energy, Temperature, and Heat

 Energy   is the capacity to do work.
 2   forms of energy:
   Kinetic energy describ...
+
 Energy, Temperature, and Heat

 Temperature:
   Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic
   energy of atoms or...
+
 Energy, Temperature, and Heat

 Heat:
   Heat is the energy transferred in or out of object
    due to temperature di...
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2.3 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
+
 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
  Conduction:
   Conduction   is the heat transferred through molecular and
    electron ...
+
 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
 Radiation
+
 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

  Solar
       radiation travels through space providing light
  and heat energy.
   Wav...
+
 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

 Laws   of radiation:
  1.   All objects continually emit radiate energy of
       a rang...
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2.4 What Happens to Incoming
Solar Radiation?
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What Happens to Incoming
Solar Radiation?
 Reflection:
     Lightbounces back from an object at the same
     angle an...
+
What Happens to Incoming
Solar Radiation?

Reflection      and the Earth’s albedo:
     Albedo   is the % of radiation...
+
What Happens to Incoming
Solar Radiation?
+
+
What Happens to Incoming
Solar Radiation?

Diffused     light:
     Diffused  light is the result of dust particles an...
+




2.5 The Role of Gases in the
Atmosphere
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The Role of Gases in the Atmosphere

 Heating   of the atmosphere
   When  gas molecules absorb radiation,
   this ene...
+
 The Role of
 Gases in the
 Atmosphere
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The Role of Gases in the Atmosphere

 The   greenhouse effect:
   The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon
    an...
+
 The Role of Gases in the
 Atmosphere
+




2.6 Earth’s Heat Budget
+
 Earth’s Heat Budget

 Annual   energy balance:
   Incoming  and outgoing radiation account for the
    Earth’s heat b...
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+
 Earth’s Heat Budget
 Latitudinal   heat balance:
 Balance of incoming and outgoing radiation
 applicable for whole ea...
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Heating Earth's Surface and The Atmosphere

  1. 1. + Heating Earth’s Surface and Atmosphere Chapter 2
  2. 2. + 2.1 Earth-Sun Relationship
  3. 3. + Earth-Sun Relationships Earth’s two principal motions:  Rotation is the spinning of the earth on its axis, resulting in the daily cycle of day and night.  Revolution is the movement of the Earth in an elliptical orbit around sun, producing one year.  Its perihelion, the closest point to sun occurs on about January 3.  The aphelion, which is the furthest point from sun occurs on about July 4.
  4. 4. +
  5. 5. +
  6. 6. + Earth-Sun Relationships What causes the seasons?  The gradual change in day length accounts for some of the differences in the seasons.  A change in angle of the sun (altitude) also plays a significant role.
  7. 7. + Earth-Sun Relationship When the sun is directly overhead (at 90°) the solar rays are more concentrated and more intense The angle of the sun determines the path solar rays take as they pass through the atmosphere  At 90° rays travel the shortest path to the surface  At lesser angles the rays have farther to travel and more rays get dispersed
  8. 8. + Earth-Sun Relationships Earth’s orientation
  9. 9. + Earth- Sun Relationship
  10. 10. + Earth-Sun Relationships  Solstices:  The summer solstice occurs on or about June 21 or 22.  At that time, the sun’s rays are vertical on the Tropic of Cancer. (23 ½° north latitude)  It also produces the longest day in the northern hemisphere.  The winter solstice occurs on or about December 21 or 22.  The sun’s rays are then vertical on the Tropic of Capricorn. (23 ½° south latitude)  This results in the shortest day in the northern hemisphere.
  11. 11. + Earth-Sun Relationships  Equinoxes:  Equinox means that day and night are equal.  The autumnal (fall) equinox happens on or about September 21 or 22.  The vernal (spring) equinox occurs on or about March 21 or 22.  The sun’s rays are vertical on the equator. (0°)  Earth isn’t tilted away or towards the sun
  12. 12. + Earth-Sun Relationships
  13. 13. + 2.2 Energy, Temperature and Heat
  14. 14. + Energy, Temperature, and Heat Energy is the capacity to do work. 2 forms of energy:  Kinetic energy describes an object in motion: the faster the motion, the greater the energy.  Potential energy means that an object is capable of motion or work. Substances such as food, gasoline, or wood contain potential energy.
  15. 15. + Energy, Temperature, and Heat Temperature:  Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms or molecules in a substance.  As temperature increases, energy is gained.  Because the particles move faster  As temperature decreases, energy is lost.
  16. 16. + Energy, Temperature, and Heat Heat:  Heat is the energy transferred in or out of object due to temperature differences.  Energy absorbed but with no increase in temperature is called latent heat.  Sensible heat is heat we can feel or measure with a thermometer.
  17. 17. + 2.3 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
  18. 18. + Mechanisms of Heat Transfer  Conduction:  Conduction is the heat transferred through molecular and electron collisions from one molecule to another.  Metals are good conductors  Convection:  Convection is the heat transferred via movement or circulation of a substance, primarily vertically  Warm air rising creates thermal currents.  Advection describes the primarily horizontal component of convective flow.
  19. 19. + Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Radiation
  20. 20. + Mechanisms of Heat Transfer  Solar radiation travels through space providing light and heat energy.  Wavelength describes the length of the crest of one radio wave to the next.  Visible light, often referred to as “white light,” actually describes the sensitivity of the human eye to a range of wavelengths.  Infrared radiation cannot be seen by the human eye, but is detected as heat.  Ultraviolet radiation, on the opposite side of the visible range, consists of wavelengths that may cause sunburns.
  21. 21. + Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Laws of radiation: 1. All objects continually emit radiate energy of a range of wavelengths. 2. Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit than colder ones. 3. Hotter objects radiate more short wave radiation than cooler ones. 4. Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are also good emitters.
  22. 22. + 2.4 What Happens to Incoming Solar Radiation?
  23. 23. + What Happens to Incoming Solar Radiation?  Reflection:  Lightbounces back from an object at the same angle and intensity.  Scattering:  Scatteringproduces a large number of weaker rays traveling in different directions.  Backscattering:  Scattering, both backwards and forwards, is known as backscattering.
  24. 24. + What Happens to Incoming Solar Radiation? Reflection and the Earth’s albedo:  Albedo is the % of radiation reflected by an object.  The albedo for Earth is about 30%.  For the moon, the albedo is about 7%.  Light objects have higher albedos and darker objects have lower albedos.
  25. 25. + What Happens to Incoming Solar Radiation?
  26. 26. +
  27. 27. + What Happens to Incoming Solar Radiation? Diffused light:  Diffused light is the result of dust particles and gas molecules scatter light in different directions.  This diffusion results in clear days with a bright blue sky.  A red sun on the horizon is the result of the great distance solar radiation must travel before it reaches your eyes.
  28. 28. + 2.5 The Role of Gases in the Atmosphere
  29. 29. + The Role of Gases in the Atmosphere Heating of the atmosphere  When gas molecules absorb radiation, this energy is transformed into internal molecular motion, detected as a rise in temperature
  30. 30. + The Role of Gases in the Atmosphere
  31. 31. + The Role of Gases in the Atmosphere The greenhouse effect:  The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon and is a result of the Earth’s atmosphere trapping some outgoing radiation.  Carbon dioxide and water vapor absorb longwave radiation, which heats the air.  The greenhouse effect is NOT the same as global warming.
  32. 32. + The Role of Gases in the Atmosphere
  33. 33. + 2.6 Earth’s Heat Budget
  34. 34. + Earth’s Heat Budget Annual energy balance:  Incoming and outgoing radiation account for the Earth’s heat budget.  Figure 2-23 on page 56 (on next slide)
  35. 35. +
  36. 36. + Earth’s Heat Budget  Latitudinal heat balance:  Balance of incoming and outgoing radiation applicable for whole earth is not maintained on latitudes.  At 38°, incoming radiation and outgoing radiation are equal.  Above 38°, the atmosphere loses more radiation.  Below 38°, the atmosphere gains more radiation.  This energy imbalance is what drives winds and ocean currents.
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