Keywords Plankton – Small plant and animal organisms that float in aquatic ecosystems Phytoplankton – Small, drifting plants, mostly algae and bacteria found in aquatic ecosystems Zooplankton – Small floating herbivores that feed on plant plankton Ultraplankton – Photosynthetic bacteria Nekton – Strongly swimming organisms found in aquatic systems Benthos – Botton dwelling organisms Decomposers – Organism that digests parts of dead organisms Euphotic Zone – Upper layer of a body of water through which sunlight can penetrate and support photosynthesis Coastal Zone – Nutrient rich shallow part of the ocean Coastal Wetlands – Land along coastline extending inland Intertidal Zone – The area of shoreline between low and high tides.
Keywords Aquaculture – growing marine or aquatic species in net pens or tanks Polyculture – raising different fish species together Monoculture – raising one fish species together Overfishing – Fishing to the point of depleting resources in an aquatic area Bycatch – When nontarget fish species are caught in a net Barrier Island – Low, narrow sandy islands that are formed off shore Freshwater Life Zones – Aquatic systems where water with a dissolved salt concentration less than 1% Oligotrophic Lake – Lake with a low supply of plant nutrient Eutrophic Lake – Lake with a large or excessive supply of plant nutrients Runoff – Freshwater from precipitation and melting ice that flows on the earths surface to nearby bodies of water
MC Questions 1) _________ is the lowering of the pH of the oceans due to an increase in carbon dioxide A – ocean acidification B – acidic sea levels C – photovoltaic acidification D – aquatic pH levels 2) What kind of consumer feeds of phytoplankton? A – Primary B – Secondary C – Tertiary D – All of the above
MC Questions 3) Which is the smallest plankton? A – Ultraplankton B – Nekton C – Phytoplankton D – Zooplankton 4) Which part of the ocean is nutrient rich and shallow? A – Coastal Zone B – Coastal Inland C – Intertidal Inland D – Intertidal Zone
MC Questions 5) Which lake has an excessive supply of plant nutrients? A – Eutrophic B – Polytrophic C – Oligotrophic D – Monotrophic 6) Which lake has a low supply of nutrients ? A – Eutrophic B – Polytrophic C – Oligotrophic D – Monotrophic
MC Questions 7) An algal bloom appears in a nearby canal, what could this be attributed to? A – Eutrophication B – Runoff C – High levels of pH D – Urban Development 8) Which of the following has caused the greatest increase in the introduction of marine alien species into new ecosystems? A – Tourism B – Air Travel C – Shipping D – Commercial Fishing
MC Questions 9) Fishing methods like bottom trawling, gill netting, and lonling are especially subject to A – Poor yields B – Crew safety policies C – Seasonal Variation D – Bycatch 10) Growing marine or aquatic species in net pens or tanks is known as A – Bioculture B – Aquaculture C – Cross Cultivation D Nonviable Organisms
MC Questions 1A 2A 3C 4B 5A 6C 7B 8C 9D 10 B
Free Response Question Why do aquatic plants such as phytoplankton tend to be very small, whereas most terrestrial plants such as trees tend to be larger and have more specialized structures such as stems and leaves for growth? Why are some aquatic animals, especially marine mammals such as whales, extremely large compared to terrestrial animals?
Free Response Question Phytoplankton have many challenges to overcome, such as obtaining light for growth and food production, a place to store nutrients efficiently, and a defense mechanism. Many terrestrial plants have these qualities in their structure, allowing them to differentiate in size and many other factors compared to a phytoplankton. Marine mammals are so large because in the ocean it is difficult for them to stay warm. The larger the mammals are, the more fat they have in their body, allowing them to keep warm in the cold ocean. Terrestrial animals have the advantage of being directly hit by the sun which allows them to be slim and still be warm. Many animals, such as the bear, eat a lot of food before hibernating in the winder to gain weight which helps them keep warm.