Research Design


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Research Design

  1. 1. Research Design
  2. 2. - the B-school Research Design <ul><li>The research design is the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information. </li></ul><ul><li>Although every problem and research objective may seem unique, there are usually enough similarities among problems and objectives to allow decisions to be made in advance about the best plan to resolve the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>There are some basic research designs that can be successfully matched to given problems and research objectives. </li></ul>
  3. 3. - the B-school Research Design <ul><li>Three traditional categories of research design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The choice of the most appropriate design depends largely on the objectives of the research and how much is known about the problem and these objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>The overall research design for a project may include one or more of these three designs as part(s) of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Further, if more than one design is to be used, typically we progress from Exploratory toward Causal. </li></ul>
  4. 4. - the B-school Research Objectives & Research Design Causal <ul><li>To determine causality </li></ul><ul><li>To test hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>to make “if-then” Causal statements </li></ul><ul><li>to answer questions </li></ul>Descriptive <ul><li>To describe and measure a phenomena at a point in time </li></ul>Exploratory <ul><li>To gain background information </li></ul><ul><li>to define terms </li></ul><ul><li>to clarify problems and develop hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>to establish research priorities </li></ul><ul><li>to develop questions to be answered </li></ul>Appropriate Design Research Objective
  5. 5. - the B-school Research Design – Exploratory Research <ul><li>Exploratory research is used in a number of situations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To gain background information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To define terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To clarify problems and hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To establish research priorities </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. - the B-school Research Design – Exploratory Research <ul><li>A variety of methods are available to conduct exploratory research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Data Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projective Techniques </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. - the B-school Research Design – Descriptive Research <ul><li>Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how – but not why. </li></ul><ul><li>Two basic classifications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-sectional studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal studies </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. - the B-school Research Design – Cross-sectional Studies <ul><li>most common and most familiar </li></ul><ul><li>uses a representative sample of elements from a population, often for a sample survey </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics of the elements are measured once, i.e. it provides a snapshot of the variables under investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage of sample surveys are: </li></ul><ul><li>High level questions, not very deep, which allow for statistical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive in terms of time and money </li></ul><ul><li>Technical skills requirements of the researcher </li></ul>
  9. 9. - the B-school Research Design – Longitudinal Studies <ul><li>involve panels, i.e. a fixed sample of elements, which are repeatedly measured over time, i.e. it provides a movie of the variables under investigation </li></ul><ul><li>panel members are relatively constant over time </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>True panel: repeatedly measured on the same variable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omnibus panel: repeatedly measured, but on differing variables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>True longitudinal analysis (aka time series analysis) can only be performed on the true panel </li></ul><ul><li>Main disadvantage of panels is that they are non representative </li></ul>
  10. 10. - the B-school Research Design – Causal Studies <ul><li>Causality may be thought of as understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements of the form “If x, then y.” </li></ul><ul><li>Causal relationships are typically determined by the use of experiments, but other methods are also used. </li></ul>
  11. 11. - the B-school Research Design – Causal Studies <ul><li>An experiment is defined as manipulating (changing values/situations) one or more independent variables to see how the dependent variable(s) is/are affected, while also controlling the affects of additional extraneous variables. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent variables: those over which the researcher has control and wishes to manipulate i.e. package size, ad copy, price. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent variables: those over which the researcher has little to no direct control, but has a strong interest in testing i.e. sales, profit, market share. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraneous variables: those that may affect a dependent variable but are not independent variables. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. - the B-school Research Design – Causal Studies <ul><li>An experimental design is a procedure for devising an experimental setting such that a change in the dependent variable may be solely attributed to a change in an independent variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols of an experimental design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O = measurement of a dependent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X = manipulation, or change, of an independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R = random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E = experimental effect </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. - the B-school Research Design – Causal Studies <ul><li>After-Only Design: X O 1 </li></ul><ul><li>One-Group, Before-After Design: O 1 X O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Before-After with Control Group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental group: O 1 X O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control group: O 3 O 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where E = (O 2 – O 1 ) – (O 4 – O 3 ) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. - the B-school Research Design – Comparison Studies Intervention A Intervention B Intervention C
  15. 15. Thank you!