Bio 199 Lecture 1 (Research) 2009


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Bio 199 Lecture 1 (Research) 2009

  1. 1. IT’S ALL ABOUT RESEARCH Biology 199 Lecture 1 Marilen M. Parungao (Assistant Professor and Microbiologist)
  2. 2. The usual definition... “going to the library” “google-ing some key words” What’s your definition???
  3. 3. RESEARCH the process of constant exploration and discovery the process of discovering new information and gain new knowledge
  4. 4. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH systematic, controlled, empirical, critical investigation of hypothetical prepositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena (Kerlinger, 1973)
  5. 5. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH a process through which we attempt to achieve SYSTEMATICALLY and with the support of data: the answer to a question the resolution of a problem the greater understanding of a phenomenon
  7. 7. 1. Originates with a question or problem What are he environmental factors that increase shrimp productivity? What active compound in atis leaves extract is cytotoxic to cancer cells?
  8. 8. 2. Requires a clear articulation of a goal What precisely do you intend to do? Example: to determine the difference in body weight loss after administration of various plant extracts
  9. 9. 3. Follows a specific plan of procedure carefully planned methods in a purposeful way: to yield data relevant to their particular research problem
  10. 10. 4. Usually divides the principal problem into more manageable subproblems principal problem: How do we get from UP Manila to Trinoma? subproblems: What is the most direct route? How far do I travel by train? How much will I spend to reach my destination?
  11. 11. 5. Guided by specific research problem, question or hypothesis hypothesizing: attempting to account for the cause (*guesses)
  12. 12. 6. Accepts certain critical assumptions it is necessary to assume
  13. 13. 7. Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in attempting to resolve the problem that initiated the research
  14. 14. 8. It follows logical, developmental stages From questions to answer “research begets research”
  15. 15. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH To contemporary concerns of nationhood and development introduce a new technology? address current social, economic, political, or cultural problems produce innovations in natural and human resource management Within the scientific or artistic domain to which it belongs contribute new information or additional knowledge to the discipline where it belongs fill out data gaps? Provide new point-of-view to previously studied phenomena
  16. 16. ULTIMATE AIM OF RESEARCH To fill in the gaps along the stream of knowledge To provide solution to contradictory results from previous studies To satisfy one’s curiosity and quest for knowledge To find truths for the satisfaction of answering questions and using this new information to help others
  17. 17. DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH They differ in terms of: purpose special features time frame degree of control over factors
  18. 18.
  19. 19. 1. HISTORICAL Purpose: investigate the nature of events that have occurred (trend analysis) Special Feature: use of historical documents and interviews with primary and secondary sources Q: Can you name a challenge for this type of research?
  20. 20. 2. DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: gather information, describe the nature of a situation; to collect data to test Ho It determines and reports the way things are it can only measure what already exists methods: questionnaire, survey instruments etc
  21. 21. 3. CORRELATIONAL/ PREDICTIONAL Purpose: to determine extent to which different variables are related to each other in the population of interest but does not imply the one that cause the other does not identify “Cause and effect” current or past: future prediction Example: The relationship between creativity and mental ability among students
  22. 22. 4. CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE Purpose: to study the association between two variables; to examine the cause and effect also known as ex post facto research from “after the fact” wherein the researcher investigates a problem by studying the variables in retrospect (looking back) dependent variable is immediately observable and now the main concern is to find out the antecedents that gave rise to this consequence Example: 1.!The effect of smoking on hearing
  23. 23. 5. EXPERIMENTAL Purpose: the only method of research which can truly test ! ! ! hypothesis concerning cause-effect relationship. the effect of a single variable applied to one situation can be assessed and the difference determined Independent Variable : also referred to as the experimental variable, the cause, or the treatment, is that activity or characteristic believed to make a difference. Dependent Variable : also known as the criterion variable, effect, or posttest is the outcome of the study, the change or difference in groups which occurs as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable. Example: 1.! ffect of varying concentrations of Pb on the brain of golden E apple snail
  25. 25. PURE RESEARCH Aims to discover basic truths or principles Intends to add to the body of scientific knowledge by exploring the unknown and discovering new facts without any particular thought as to immediate practical utility (Shubin, 1971) Examples: Physiological Researches Predator-prey and Competition Experiments in Ecology Taxonomic and biodiversity studies Quantum and plasma physics research
  26. 26. APPLIED RESEARCH Involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem (development of a new system or procedure, new device, or new method) Examples: Biotechnology Researches classical breeding genetic engineering! cloning studies Information technology