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BIODIVERSITY: definition, levels and threats

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BIODIVERSITY: definition, levels and threats

  1. 1. LECTURE ON BIODIVERSITY DEFINITION! LEVELS! IMPORTANCE! THREATS & ! STATUS www.picswallpaper.com
  2. 2. LET’S HAVE AN EYE CHECK… Which one looks better?
  3. 3. LET’S HAVE AN EYE CHECK… Which one looks better?
  4. 4. LET’S HAVE AN EYE CHECK… A B Which one looks better?
  5. 5. LET’S HAVE AN EYE CHECK… A B Which one looks better?
  6. 6. NOW LET’S CHECK OUT THE OUTSIDE WORLD Which one looks better?
  7. 7. BIODIVERSITY www.vintagephilippines.com errolgatumbato.www.thelandofpromise.com wordpress.com
  8. 8. WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? ❖ Variety and Diversity of life forms (number of kinds) in an area! ! australianmuseum.net.au ❖ Biodiversity increases the stability of an ecosystem and contributes to the health of the biosphere
  9. 9. BIODIVERSITY on EXTINCTION ISSUES ❖Biodiversity is the FOCUS of conservation! ! ❖Extinction ! ❖a process that happens when an entire species permanently disappears from the biosphere due to the death of the species’ last member www.phibetaiota.net
  10. 10. HIGH BIODIVERSITY = HEALTHY ECOSYSTEM ❖Measurement of how healthy ecosystems are! ! ❖HEALTHY ECOSYSTEM support HIGH biological diversity! ! ❖STRESSED ECOSYSTEM may not have the CAPACITY to support high biological diversity www.motherearthnews.com
  11. 11. BIODIVERSITY LEVELS ❖ ECOLOGICAL/ECOSYSTEM! ❖ different habitats, niches, species interactions! ❖ SPECIES! ❖ different kinds of organisms, relationships among species! ! ❖ GENETIC! ❖ different genes & combinations of genes within populations
  12. 12. ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY ❖ collection of all the plants and animals within a particular area, each differing in species composition, physical structure and function! ! ❖ the variety of ecosystems that are present in the biosphere! ❖ made up of interacting populations and the abiotic factors that support them! ❖ example: BIOMES www.sciencerecorder.com
  13. 13. BIOMES www.csus.edu
  14. 14. SPECIES DIVERSITY ❖ measure of the number of species which occur within a particular taxonomic level in a given geographic area! ! ❖ the number of different species and the relative abundance of each species in a biological community blogs.thehindu.com
  15. 15. SPECIES DIVERSITY in ANGIOSPERMS www.blog.gurukpo.com
  16. 16. GENETIC DIVERSITY ❖ The variety of genes or inheritable characteristics that are present in a population comprises its genetic diversity! ❖ Degree of variation in all the genes for all individuals within a species! ❖ As basis for evolution: Genetic diversity within an interbreeding population increases the chances of survival during changing environmental conditions or during the outbreak of disease! ❖ Example: BANANAS and RICE varieties www.ethicurean.com
  17. 17. GENETIC DIVERSITY in BANANAS errebeekeeper.wordpress.com
  18. 18. GENETIC DIVERSITY in RICE
  19. 19. GENETIC DIVERSITY in CORN slola.blogspot.com
  20. 20. OTHER DIVERSITY IN GENES www.ecosystemservicesseq.com.au www.gardenculture.net biojoan.com
  21. 21. WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT? There are direct and indirect economic, aesthetic, and scientific reasons for preserving biodiversity
  22. 22. WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT? There are direct and indirect economic, aesthetic, and scientific reasons for preserving biodiversity
  23. 23. WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT? There are direct and indirect economic, aesthetic, and scientific reasons for preserving biodiversity
  24. 24. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Extinction
  25. 25. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Extinction www.globalchange.umich.edu
  26. 26. EXTINCTION GOLDEN SNAIL JANITOR FISH Introduced Species avrotor.blogspot.com www.petproductnews.com
  27. 27. EXTINCTION Habitat Loss
  28. 28. EXTINCTION Habitat Fragmentation
  29. 29. EXTINCTION Too much harvest for food, medicine and other human sustenance Over Exploitation science.howstuffworks.com
  30. 30. EXTINCTION davesgarden.com www.davidsanger.com Invasive Species
  31. 31. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Climate Change www.newsecuritybeat.org www.mediaglobal.org
  32. 32. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Pollution climatechange.thinkaboutit.eu
  33. 33. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Mining and Bioaccumulation LARRY PRICE - www.flickr.com
  34. 34. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Overpopulation
  35. 35. BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS
  36. 36. THE PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY STATUS
  37. 37. PHILIPPINES: one of the 17 MEGADIVERSE countries ❖ RAREST WILDLIFE: has more than 52,177 described species, half of which are endemic! ❖ more than 1,130 terrestrial wildlife species recorded for the Philippines (49 percent or half are endemic); 157 are threatened (128 are threatened endemic) life-sea.blogspot.com
  38. 38. PHILIPPINES: one of the 17 MEGADIVERSE countries ❖ FLORAL DIVERSITY: between 10,000 and 14,000 species of vascular and non-vascular plants, more than half of which are endemic landofpromise.fairfood.org wildlifeconservation.ph hortlog.blogspot.com
  39. 39. PHILIPPINES: one of the 17 MEGADIVERSE countries ❖ AMPHIBIAN & REPTILE DIVERSITY: estimated total of 359 species of amphibians (101 species, 246 are endemic, highest % endemism for all vertebrates) and reptiles (258 species) gdeichmann.Photo by: Arvin Diesmos. photoshelter.com
  40. 40. PHILIPPINES: one of the 17 MEGADIVERSE countries ❖ BIRD DIVERSITY: 576 species of birds (195 are endemic), 45 species are either extinct in the wild, critical, or endangered newsinfo.inquirer.net
  41. 41. PHILIPPINES: one of the 17 MEGADIVERSE countries www.explorer-philippines.com ❖ MAMMALIAN DIVERSITY: 174 mammalian species (111 are endemic) animals.pawnation.com
  42. 42. NEW DISCOVERIES ❖ Several new species have been discovered in small islands such as Sibuyan (five new species) and Camiguin (two new species), catapulting these islands to a new status as centers of mammal endemism! ! ❖ Sibuyan Island (463 km2), which hosts four species of endemic non-flying mammals (plus one bat), a total exceeding that of any country in Europe

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