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Biodiversity: Living and Non-Living Resources

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Biodiversity: Living and Non-Living Resources

  1. 1. LECTURE ON BIODIVERSITY DEFINITION! LEVELS! IMPORTANCE! THREATS & ! STATUS www.picswallpaper.com MODULE 4
  2. 2. LET’S HAVE AN EYE CHECK… Which one looks better?
  3. 3. LET’S HAVE AN EYE CHECK… Which one looks better?
  4. 4. LET’S HAVE AN EYE CHECK… Which one looks better? A B
  5. 5. LET’S HAVE AN EYE CHECK… Which one looks better? A B
  6. 6. NOW LET’S CHECK OUT THE OUTSIDE WORLD Which one looks better?
  7. 7. BIODIVERSITY errolgatumbato.wordpress.comwww.thelandofpromise.com www.vintagephilippines.com
  8. 8. WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? ❖ Variety and Diversity of life forms (number of kinds) in an area! ! ❖ Biodiversity increases the stability of an ecosystem and contributes to the health of the biosphere australianmuseum.net.au
  9. 9. BIODIVERSITY on EXTINCTION ISSUES ❖Biodiversity is the FOCUS of conservation! ! ❖Extinction ! ❖a process that happens when an entire species permanently disappears from the biosphere due to the death of the species’ last member www.phibetaiota.net
  10. 10. HIGH BIODIVERSITY = HEALTHY ECOSYSTEM ❖ Measurement of how healthy ecosystems are! ! ❖ HEALTHY ECOSYSTEM support HIGH biological diversity! ! ❖ STRESSED ECOSYSTEM may not have the CAPACITY to support high biological diversity www.motherearthnews.com
  11. 11. BIODIVERSITY LEVELS ❖ ECOLOGICAL/ECOSYSTEM! ❖ different habitats, niches, species interactions! ❖ SPECIES! ❖ different kinds of organisms, relationships among species! ! ❖ GENETIC! ❖ different genes & combinations of genes within populations
  12. 12. ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY ❖ collection of all the plants and animals within a particular area, each differing in species composition, physical structure and function! ! ❖ the variety of ecosystems that are present in the biosphere! ❖ made up of interacting populations and the abiotic factors that support them! ❖ example: BIOMES www.sciencerecorder.com
  13. 13. BIOMES www.csus.edu
  14. 14. SPECIES DIVERSITY ❖ measure of the number of species which occur within a particular taxonomic level in a given geographic area! ! ❖ the number of different species and the relative abundance of each species in a biological community blogs.thehindu.com
  15. 15. SPECIES DIVERSITY in ANGIOSPERMS www.blog.gurukpo.com
  16. 16. GENETIC DIVERSITY ❖ The variety of genes or inheritable characteristics that are present in a population comprises its genetic diversity! ❖ Degree of variation in all the genes for all individuals within a species! ❖ As basis for evolution: Genetic diversity within an interbreeding population increases the chances of survival during changing environmental conditions or during the outbreak of disease! ❖ Example: BANANAS and RICE varieties www.ethicurean.com
  17. 17. GENETIC DIVERSITY in BANANAS errebeekeeper.wordpress.com
  18. 18. GENETIC DIVERSITY in RICE
  19. 19. GENETIC DIVERSITY in CORN slola.blogspot.com
  20. 20. OTHER DIVERSITY IN GENES biojoan.comwww.gardenculture.net www.ecosystemservicesseq.com.au
  21. 21. WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT? There are direct and indirect economic, aesthetic, and scientific reasons for preserving biodiversity
  22. 22. WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT? There are direct and indirect economic, aesthetic, and scientific reasons for preserving biodiversity
  23. 23. WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT? There are direct and indirect economic, aesthetic, and scientific reasons for preserving biodiversity
  24. 24. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Extinction
  25. 25. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Extinctionwww.globalchange.umich.edu
  26. 26. EXTINCTION Introduced Speciesavrotor.blogspot.com www.petproductnews.com GOLDEN SNAIL JANITOR FISH
  27. 27. EXTINCTION Habitat Loss
  28. 28. EXTINCTION Habitat Fragmentation
  29. 29. EXTINCTION Over Exploitation Too much harvest for food, medicine and other human sustenance science.howstuffworks.com
  30. 30. EXTINCTION Invasive Species davesgarden.com www.davidsanger.com
  31. 31. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Climate Change www.newsecuritybeat.org www.mediaglobal.org
  32. 32. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Pollution climatechange.thinkaboutit.eu
  33. 33. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Mining and Bioaccumulation LARRY PRICE - www.flickr.com
  34. 34. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Overpopulation
  35. 35. BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS
  36. 36. THE PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY STATUS
  37. 37. PHILIPPINES: one of the 17 MEGADIVERSE countries ❖ RAREST WILDLIFE: has more than 52,177 described species, half of which are endemic! ❖ more than 1,130 terrestrial wildlife species recorded for the Philippines (49 percent or half are endemic); 157 are threatened (128 are threatened endemic) life-sea.blogspot.com
  38. 38. PHILIPPINES: one of the 17 MEGADIVERSE countries ❖ FLORAL DIVERSITY: between 10,000 and 14,000 species of vascular and non-vascular plants, more than half of which are endemic landofpromise.fairfood.org wildlifeconservation.ph hortlog.blogspot.com
  39. 39. PHILIPPINES: one of the 17 MEGADIVERSE countries ❖ AMPHIBIAN & REPTILE DIVERSITY: estimated total of 359 species of amphibians (101 species, 246 are endemic, highest % endemism for all vertebrates) and reptiles (258 species) gdeichmann.photoshelter.comPhoto by: Arvin Diesmos.
  40. 40. PHILIPPINES: one of the 17 MEGADIVERSE countries ❖ BIRD DIVERSITY: 576 species of birds (195 are endemic), 45 species are either extinct in the wild, critical, or endangered newsinfo.inquirer.net
  41. 41. PHILIPPINES: one of the 17 MEGADIVERSE countries ❖ MAMMALIAN DIVERSITY: 174 mammalian species (111 are endemic) www.explorer-philippines.com animals.pawnation.com
  42. 42. NEW DISCOVERIES ❖ Several new species have been discovered in small islands such as Sibuyan (five new species) and Camiguin (two new species), catapulting these islands to a new status as centers of mammal endemism! ! ❖ Sibuyan Island (463 km2 ), which hosts four species of endemic non-flying mammals (plus one bat), a total exceeding that of any country in Europe
  43. 43. Activity for THURSDAY
  44. 44. what to do… ❖ If you will be an endemic (or endangered) philippine species who will you be?! ❖ You may want to consult the workbook or other references! ❖ Make a portfolio (letter size) board paper:! ❖ photo! ❖ about you (from where are you)! ❖ shout out (how to save you from extinction)! ❖ BE RESOURCEFUL, BE UNIQUE! ❖ To be PRESENTED NEXT MEETING!
  45. 45. NEXT MEETING: BIODIVERSITY MEASUREMENTS ALPHA & BETA DIVERSITY! RICHNESS & EVENNESS
  46. 46. MEASUREMENT OF COMMUNITY DIVERSITY ❖ Ecologists define community diversity on the basis of 2 components:! ❖ SPECIES RICHNESS! ❖ the number of species in the community! ❖ SPECIES EVENNESS! ❖ the relative number of species in the community
  47. 47. SPECIES RICHNESS VS SPECIES EVENNESS WHICH COMMUNITY IS RICH?
  48. 48. SPECIES RICHNESS VS SPECIES EVENNESS WHICH COMMUNITY IS RICH?
  49. 49. SPECIES RICHNESS VS SPECIES EVENNESS WHICH COMMUNITY IS EVEN?
  50. 50. MEASUREMENT OF COMMUNITY DIVERSITY ❖ Measures of diversity are INDICATORS of the well- being of ecological systems and greatly contribute in environmental monitoring efforts and conservation strategies! ❖ Diversity Index! ❖ reflects the relationship between species richness and evenness in measuring diversity! ❖ e.g. SHANNON-WEINER INDEX
  51. 51. ACTIVITY FOR TODAY ❖ FORM 5 GROUPS & CHOOSE A CAR PARK AS YOUR ECOSYSTEM! ❖ OBTAIN THE VARIOUS DIVERSITY DATA USING THE FOLLOWING! ❖ Genus (Car brand)! ❖ species (car characteristic)! ❖ CHOOSE A REPRESENTATIVE AND REPORT NEXT MEETING! ❖ Follow the data format on page 50-51 and answer the guide questions (submit one per group of your reported data and answers to Q)
  52. 52. ACTIVITY FOR TODAY
  53. 53. activity for today
  54. 54. LECTURE ON THE PHILIPPINE BIODIVERSITY STATUS Non-Living Resources! Biological Resources! Population and Human Resources! Issues on the PHL Environmental Situation www.picswallpaper.com MODULE 3 and 5
  55. 55. BIOMES - Interaction between living & non-living resources
  56. 56. THE NON-LIVING RESOURCES • AIR! • WATER! • LAND www.fs.fed.us
  57. 57. AIR • Air is the layer of gases surrounding the Earth's sphere! • Clean air is composed of: ! • 78 percent nitrogen! • 21 percent oxygen! • 0.9 percent argon! • 0.03 percent carbon dioxide! • trace greenhouse gasess and tratospheric ozone! • Air also contains water vapour, droplets, dust and other particles and contaminants cleantechnica.com
  58. 58. AIR as a Renewable resource • Air is a renewable resource replenished by natural processes! • Example: Oxygen = produced by plants! • Air can also be cleansed by natural processes, such as rain! • But air quality is changed by human and natural processes (the latter including volcanoes, forest fires) cleantechnica.com
  59. 59. AIR as a FREE resource • We treat the air as a free resource, as part of the Global Commons! • We don’t pay to use it for breathing ! • We don’t pay to use it as a conduit for waste disposal.! • But there are costs associated with air pollution, in terms of human health, ecosystem health, climate change and the economy cleantechnica.com
  60. 60. CLIMATE CHANGE cleantechnica.com
  61. 61. OZONE DEPLETION • TO MAKE OZONE…. cleantechnica.com
  62. 62. OZONE DEPLETION • TO DESTROY OZONE… cleantechnica.com
  63. 63. AIR POLLUTION cleantechnica.com • Air pollutants are any visible or invisible substances in the atmosphere that pose a threat to human health or the environment! • Most anthropogenic pollutants are associated with combustion of fossil fuels! • PRIMARY AIR POLLUTANTS: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulates (TSP), hydrocarbon organic compounds (HCs, VOCs)! • Anthropogenic pollutants can be widely dispersed by atmospheric motions, depending on their residence time
  64. 64. AIR POLLUTION & WEATHER CONDITIONS cleantechnica.com
  65. 65. WATER • While 67% of Earth’s surface is covered by water, only less than 2.7% of global water is freshwater! • Most of the freshwater (2.05%) are locked in ice caps and glaciers. Only less than 0.7% is available for human use! • On a global basis, fresh water is a increasingly scarce resource! • It is partially caused by increasing population coupled by change of consumption pattern and climate changes imgur.com
  66. 66. USES OF WATER imgur.com
  67. 67. USES OF WATER imgur.com
  68. 68. USES OF WATER IN FOOD PRODUCTION imgur.com
  69. 69. CLASSIFICATION: FRESHWATER • CLASS AA: PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY; REQUIRES APPROVED DISINFECTION ONLY • CLASS A: COMPLETE TREATMENT REQUIRED (COAGULATION, SEDIMENTATION, FILTRATION, DISINFECTION) • CLASS B: PRIMARY CONTACT RECREATION (BATHING, SWIMMING) • CLASS C: PROPAGATION OF FISH; BOATING; MANUFACTURING WATER AFTER TREATMENT • CLASS D: IRRIGATION imgur.com
  70. 70. CLASSIFICATION: MARINE WATER • CLASS SA: PROPAGATION, SURVIVAL AND HARVEST OF SHELL FISH (COMMERCIAL PURPOSES) • CLASS SB: RECREATIONAL WATER (BATHING, SWIMMING, SKINDIVING); FISHERIES (BANGUS) • CLASS SC: RECREATIONAL WATER (BOATING ETC.); SUSTENANCE FISHING; MANGROVE AS WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES • CLASS SD: INDUSTRIAL WATER SUPPLY (COOLING) imgur.com
  71. 71. THREATS TO FRESH WATER RESOURCES imgur.com • Climate change causes change in frequencies of droughts and floods! • Depletion of aquifers caused by over-consumption as a result of population growth! • Pollution and contamination by sewage, agricultural and industrial runoff
  72. 72. THREATS TO FRESH WATER RESOURCES imgur.com
  73. 73. THREATS TO FRESH WATER RESOURCES imgur.com
  74. 74. THREATS TO FRESH WATER RESOURCES imgur.com
  75. 75. LAND RESOURCES • 3 uses that change the land are agriculture, development, and mining! • Less than 1/3 of Earth can be farmed! • New farmland must be created for the growing populations! • Poor soil management can result in 3 problems: ! • erosion, nutrient depletion, and desertification www.wallpaper2020.com
  76. 76. EROSION • Process by which water, wind, or ice moves particles of rocks or soil www.wallpaper2020.com gsoil.wordpress.com
  77. 77. EROSION www.wallpaper2020.com
  78. 78. NUTRIENT DEPLETION • When farmers plant the same crops in a field year after year! • As a result, the plants use more nutrients than the decomposers can replace! • The soil becomes less fertile www.wallpaper2020.comthinktrees.co.uk
  79. 79. DESERTIFICATION • Desertlike conditions: farm lands or areas that are into previously were fertile advanced into becoming deserts www.wallpaper2020.comearthhabitat.wordpress.com
  80. 80. LAND CONVERSION www.wallpaper2020.com www.maharashtragk.com
  81. 81. LAND CONVERSION www.wallpaper2020.comwww.fao.org
  82. 82. ENDEMISM: THE LIVING RESOURCES • Native/Indigenous species: species are those established in a given region, having originated there, or been long settled without human intervention! • Endemic organisms are found nowhere else! • Introduced/exotic/alien: is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental Paphiopedilum fowliei
  83. 83. LIVING RESOURCES: PLANTS • Megadiverse! • High species richness! • High endemicity! • The Philippines is the 23rd most plant species rich country in the world and the 7th in the Asian Region! • 12, 000 species of plants in the Philippines, 8, 000 of which are seed plants (Madulid 1985)! • Other estimates : about 9000 species (Ashton 1997) Paphiopedilum fowliei
  84. 84. WHY SO MANY PLANTS IN THE PHILIPPINES? • Geological history! • Archipelagic nature! • Climatic conditions! • Topographic features Paphiopedilum fowliei
  85. 85. 1,246 SPECIES OF ENDEMIC MOSSES, LIVERWORTS AND HORNWORTS ! (6.1% ENDEMISM) From LL Co Dicranum sp Marchantia sp! Sphagnum sp Bazzania sp
  86. 86. 1,031 SPECIES OF FERNS & FERN ALLIES (28% ENDEMISM) From LL Co Cyathea philippinensis Hymenophillum reinwardtii Dipteris lobbiana! Chingia ferox Dicksonia mollis Dryopteris purpurascens
  87. 87. 8,000 SPECIES OF SEED PLANTS (40% ENDEMISM) From LL Co Hoya melliflua Rhododendron javanicum var schadenbergi! Drosera spathulata Monophyllaea longipes!
  88. 88. 1,068 SPECIES OF NATIVE ORCHIDS (75% ENDEMISM) From LL Co Spathoglottis palawanensis Dendrobium sp.! Mycaranthes leonardoi Renanthera philippinensis
  89. 89. PHILIPPINE RAFFLESIAS From LL Co • There seem to be a trend where the diameter seemed to decrease with increasing latitude!
  90. 90. LIVING RESOURCES: ANIMALS • ENDANGERED versus ENDEMIC! • Endemic! • An organism exclusively native to a place or biota! ! • Endangered! • A species present in such small numbers that it is at risk of extinction PHILIPPINE TARSIER
  91. 91. ENDANGERED PHILIPPINE BIRDS! (116/185 species) Philippine Eagle Red-vented Cockatoo Palawan Peacock Pheasant ! Sulu Hornbill Mindoro Imperial Pigeon Negros Bleeding Heart Pigeon
  92. 92. ENDANGERED PHILIPPINE MAMMALS takdangaralin.tumblr.comnoypicollections.blogspot.comwww2.hull.ac.ukwww.pcsd.phtuylosanimales.blogspot.com Red-spotted deer Calamian Deer Philippine Tamaraw! Philippine Tarsier Palawan Bear Cat Philippine Mouse Deer (Pilandok)
  93. 93. ENDANGERED PHILIPPINE MAMMALS takdangaralin.tumblr.comnoypicollections.blogspot.comwww2.hull.ac.ukwww.pcsd.phtuylosanimales.blogspot.com Philippine Dugong Northern Luzon Giant Cloud Rat! Philippine Flyring Lemur (Kagwang) Visayan Warty Pig
  94. 94. THE WORLD’S SMALLEST AND BIGGEST BATS www.pcsd.ph Philippine Bamboo Bat! ! Golden-capped Fruit Bat www.trulscronberg.com
  95. 95. www.pcsd.ph Mindoro Freshwater Crocodile! Philippine Flat-headed Frog! Gray Monitor Lizard (Bayawak) LARGE CROCODILES, LIZARDS AND SMALL FROGS
  96. 96. PHILIPPINE TURTLES www.pcsd.phwww.trulscronberg.com Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) Hawksbill sea turtle Philippine pond turtle Heosemys leytensis Philippine Green turtle Leatherback sea turtle
  97. 97. LARGEST AND SMALLEST FISH IN THE HOUSE… www.pcsd.phwww.trulscronberg.com Whale Shark (Butanding)! Dwarf Goby!
  98. 98. FAB-LOOKING CREATURES OF THE SEA www.pcsd.phwww.trulscronberg.com Philippine Seahorse! Tridacna gigas (Giant clam)! Pisidum! Connus gloriamaris
  99. 99. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS • Philippine Biodiversity Conservation Priorities (DENR- PAWB and Conservation International! • www.chm.ph! • For some reference:! • http://www.conservation.org/global/philippines/Pages/ default.aspx! • http://www.philippinecockatoo.org/programs%20and %20strategies.htm! • http://fpe.ph/biodiversity-conservation-strategies.html/ view/2002-the-philippine-biodiversity-conservation- priorities PHILIPPINE TARSIER
  100. 100. LIVING RESOURCES: HUMANS Parungao lectures
  101. 101. Parungao lecturessnbchf.com
  102. 102. Parungao lectures
  103. 103. Parungao lectures
  104. 104. Parungao lectures
  105. 105. Parungao lectures
  106. 106. Parungao lectures
  107. 107. Parungao lectures
  108. 108. Parungao lectures
  109. 109. ACTIVITY: MODULE ON PAGE 41-45 Parungao lectures
  110. 110. END OF EXAM COVERAGE gtdforcios.com

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