• Cinematography refers to the art of
photography and camerawork in filmmaking.
Types of shots:
• Medium shot
• Wide shot (also called a long shot)
• Low angle
• High angle
• Straight angle
• Canted or oblique (tilted)
Camera angles can be used to communicate
meaning and emotion about characters.
Daniel Craig in James Bond 007 – A high angle shot
Straight angle – The shot is looking straight at the subject
A canted shot (also called an oblique or tilted shot)
Mise-en-scene refers to the what is shown in the camerashot. It includes everything that is known about the set and
everything set before the camera. It used to create meaning
in the film.
In other words, it is how a scene is put together to make an
image as a part of the overall film.
Lighting refers to how a scene or shot is lighted. Lighting is used
to create mood and feeling.
There are different types of lighting used, but one important type is called chiaroscuro.
The word ‘Chiaroscuro’ has Italian and Latin origins and was first made popular in
Renaissance art. Basically, chiaroscuro refers to strong contrast between light and dark.
It was a very popular style of lighting in the 1950s and in film-noir.
A still from the film-noir
‘Chinatown’ – starring Jack
Sound is used extensively in films. Depending on the film, there could be a
soundtrack, made up of tracks from various popular artists. There could also
be a score, which is music that has been especially made for the film. A score
is usually orchestra music. Films that have their own score include the Batman
Trilogy, The Lord of the Rings Trilogy, the Harry Potter films, The Pirates of the
Sound in film extends beyond music however. There are sound effects also.
Sound effects range from the screeching of a tyre in a car chase to electronic
sounds in Transformers films. A film score attempts to keep to the mood and
story of a film. For example, The Pirates of the Caribbean is an adventure film
with action and epic scenes. As such, the score is largely fast-paced and lively.
Part of the score from Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the
Diegetic sound: Diegetic sound refers to any sound of which the
source can be seen on-screen or can be heard by the characters
in the film. For example, if the character in a film were listening
to music the sound would be diegetic. Other diegetic sound
could include running water in a sink, a car driving by, and birds
singing (there are many more).
Non-diegetic: Non-diegetic sounds refers to any sound that the
audience alone can hear and the characters within the film
cannot. A film’s score would be an example of this. The audience
can hear the music but the film’s character(s) cannot.