Do fear and exaggeration increase risk?


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A presentation by co-director Larry Magid on fear-based messaging and alternatives including social norming

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  • THERE NEVER HAS BEEN A STUDY ON HOW MUCH CHILDREN ARE SOLICITED BY “PREDATORS.” NOTE THE HEADLINE: “All Children Vulnerable to Online Predators”. IT’S A TRICK QUESTION BECAUSE THE SURVEY WASN’T ABOUT PREDATORS. It was about unwanted sexual solicitations from anybody – flirting is often an unwanted sexual solicitation, as the researchers defined the term. Here’s what the 2000 study this refers to – updated in 2006 with the figure 1 in 7, so the no. of solicitations had gone down – actually said....READ THIS:“Youth identify most sexual solicitors as being other adolescents (48% in 2000; 43% in 2006) or young adults 18-24 (20%; 30%), with few (4%; 9%) coming from older adults, and the remaining being of unknown age.” THE TOTALS: 68% teens & 18-24-year-olds in 2000; 73% in 2006.
  • From 1990 to 2005 – the period of time that the Web was born and grew most rapidly – there was a 51% decline in overall child sexual – the chart’s showing that: out of every 10,000 US minors, 23 were abused, with that no. going down to 11 in 2005.UPDATE: 58% decline thru 2008, latest figure available (reported by CCRC here “Updated Trends in Child Maltreatment, 2008” <>)NCANDS = National Data Archives on Child Abuse & Neglect
  • THESE ARE ALL IMPORTANT BUT VERY GENERAL – CERTAINLY EACH INCIDENT IS UNIQUE AND NEEDS CARING INDIVIDUAL TREATMENT - a full, nonconfrontational, child-caregiver discussion that looks at the situation’s circumstances. The psychological damage can be considerable – some kids have suicidal thoughts.School counselor I spoke with several years ago would find out all the parties involved, get them in a room, and do bully-victim reverse role-playing (empathy training). In families and schools, some of these incidents can be turned into TEACHABLE MOMENTS (maybe anonymized?) for all parties’ benefit.
  • Do fear and exaggeration increase risk?

    1. 1. Do fear and exaggeration increase risk? Larry Magid (not pictured above) Co-director, Founder,
    2. 2. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was right “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
    3. 3. After 9/11, flying was “dangerous”So people drove more and deaths perpassenger mile went up
    4. 4. Some parents fear inoculationsWhich means fewer kids are protectedagainst preventable diseases
    5. 5. And sometimes fear can lead toquestionable invasive procedures
    6. 6. Some panicked over:• Y2K• Killer bees• Swine flu• Stranger danger• Stock market “crash”• Al Qaeda and nuclear weapons in Iraq• Unemployment• Not enough people to fill available jobs• Inflation• Deflation• Obama getting elected• McCain getting elected
    7. 7. And, of course
    8. 8. But fear can also be protective
    9. 9. “You should not try to scare people into healthy practices”“In 50 years of research, many different theories have beendeveloped to explain the inconsistent results with respect tothe effects (or lack of effects) of fear appeals, but in generalhealth communicators have assumed for a long time that“you should not try to scare people into healthy practices,including smoking prevention and cessation.”(Hill, Chapman, Donovan, 1998).
    10. 10. If it’s not credible & actionable, people don’t respond“According to EPPM*, how people respond to fearappeals depends on their assessment of the threat andtheir perceived efficacy. When assessing threat, theaudience considers severity, or the seriousness of it, aswell as their susceptibility, or the likelihood that it willhappen to them.”*Extended Parallel Process ModelBased on research from Kim White @ Michigan State
    11. 11. Boomerang effectIf the perception of threat exceeds perception ofefficacy…• They will avoid the message• Deny they are at risk• Mock the message or become angry at the source or issue (and ignore it).• They may even increase their unhealthy behaviors (boomerang effect).
    12. 12. Danger control• When perceived threat is low, the audience does not worry about efficacy and so they do not respond• When perceived threat is high and perceived efficacy is low(er), the result is avoidance, denial or anger towards the source or issue (fear control)• When perceived threat is high and perceived efficacy is higher, the recommended behavior is adopted (danger control)Based on research from Kim White @ Michigan State
    13. 13. The DARE experience• DARE classes were no less likely to have smoked marijuana or cigarettes, drunk alcohol, used "illicit" drugs like cocaine or heroin, or caved in to peer pressure than kids who’d never been exposed to DARE.• Its panic-level assertions that "drug abuse is everywhere." Kids don’t respond well to hyperbole, and both the "Just Say No" message and the hysteria implied in the anti-drug rhetoric were pushing students away.• It’s also possible, some researchers speculate, that by making drugs seem more prevalent, or "normal" than they actually are, the DARE program might actually push kids who are anxious to fit in towards drugs.Time Magazine:,8599,99564,00.html#ixzz1W0XkvmW1DD
    14. 14. DARE to keep kids away from candy• My 6-year old daughter was afraid of Walgreens because it sold “drugs”• Besides, kids her age weren’t at risk of drugs – the biggest risk in their lives was candy and junk foodSource: My wife Patti Regehr
    15. 15. Fear can paralyze
    16. 16. And lead to irrational decisions
    17. 17. Predator Panic of 2004-2006
    18. 18. The rise of the web has not resulted in increased victimization of children 51% Decline (during the period of the Web’s existence) Blue line represents 58% decline in child sex abuse from 1992 to 2008Source: Updated Trends in Child Maltreatment, 2008: Finkelhor, Jones and Shattuck: Crimes AgainstChildren Research Center
    19. 19. Moving right alongThe Internet Safety Technical Task Force found that:“Bullying and harassment, most often by peers, are themost salient threats that minors face, both online andoffline.”Which naturally leads to ….
    20. 20. Cyberbullying Panic!
    21. 21. It’s a problem, not an epidemic Data is not consistent but the consensus is that about 20% of kids experienced cyberbullyingChart: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey
    22. 22. Be careful about “bullycide” • Suicide experts say there is rarely one single reason why a person takes his or her life • Dramatizing or glorifying suicide can actually lead to copycat suicides. • Be aware of suicide media guidelines
    23. 23. Most children are neither victims nor monsters • Not every interaction that makes kids uncomfortable is bullying • While some are very vulnerable, most children are reasonably resilient. • Across Europe, 6% of 9 to 16-year-old internet users have been bullied online. 3% confess to having bullied others. * • Far more have been bullied offline, with 19 per cent saying they have been bullied at all – and 12 per cent have bullied someone else** EU Kids Online
    24. 24. And bullying is going down, not up “The percentage of youth (2-17) reporting physical bullying in the past year went down from 22 percent to 15 percent between 2003 and 2008.” Source: Trends in Childhood Violence and Abuse Exposure .. Finkelhor, et al)
    25. 25. Sexting PanicA 2008 survey found that 20% of teens sent a ‘sext’ Which led to stories like this:
    26. 26. But a 2011 study found • 1.3% sent an image where they showed breasts, genitals or someone’s bottom • 2.5% sent an image where they were nude or partially nudeSource: Crimes Against Children Research Center, Dec , 2011
    27. 27. Danger of exaggeration• Can destroy credibility• Can cause “boomerang effect”• Can cause people to believe that behaviors are “normal”
    28. 28. Social norms approach • People emulate how they think their peers behave • If people think their friends don’t smoke, they’re less likely to smoke. • Same is true with over-eating, excessive alcohol use and other negative behaviors, including bullying**Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the SocialNorms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008
    29. 29. Alternative to fear messaging“Social-norms marketing campaigns have emergedas an alternative to more traditional approaches(e.g., information campaigns, moral exhortation,fear inducing messages) designed to reduceundesirable conduct.”Donaldson, Graham, Piccinin, & Hansen, 1995
    30. 30. Emphasize the positive• People, especially youth, can benefit from positive images and role models• Creating a culture of respect actually can lead to respect• Respectful behavior truly is normal. Most kids do not bully
    31. 31. Examples of positive normingSource: Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social NormsModel to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008
    32. 32. Thanks Larry MagidCo-director, Founder,