Intentional Exposure to Pornography Online:Is everybody doing it?Merle Hamburger PhDCenters for Disease Control and Preven...
Background An estimated 97% of youth use the Internet(Lenhart, Madden & Hitlin, 2005; USC Annenberg School Center for the...
Background: The positiveside of the Internet About one in four adolescents have used theInternet to look for health infor...
Background: The negativeside of the Internet Internet harassment has increased from 6% to9%, while unwanted sexual solici...
Problem StatementDespite recent research which has highlightedthe impact negative interpersonal experiencessome young peop...
Panel Presentations Describe the Growing up with Media (GuwM) study Use GuwM data to examine: Instigation of unwanted s...
GuwM Methodology Conducted between August 24 to September 14,2006 Participants recruited from Harris Poll On Line 1,591...
Harris Poll On Line HPOL is a double opt-in panel of millions ofrespondents. HPOL data are consistently comparable todat...
GuwM Eligibility ADULT Be a US resident member of the Harris Poll Online(HPOL) opt-in panel Be the most (or equally) kn...
GuwM Data Methods Sample selection was stratified based on youth ageand sex. Sample was also stratified between “novice”...
GuwM Data Methods To control the sample and the increase responserate, the following steps were taken: Password-protecte...
Growing up with MediaData Analyses Response rate was 26% (rates can range from5-50%) Propensity scoring was applied to a...
Growing up with MediaData Analyses For analyses, cases were required to havevalid data for 85% of variables examined. Re...
Youth DemographicCharacteristics 48% Female Mean age: 12.6 years (SE: 0.05) 71% White, 13% Black, 9% Mixed, 7% Other 1...
Background Sexual aggression in adolescence 5-10% males; 1% females Pornography exposure may be linked withsexual aggre...
The Internet andX-Rated Material Estimates indicate that 95% of adolescents areonline Concern that the Internet will bec...
Research QuestionsIn a sample of adolescents (ages 10-15): What is the 1-year prevalence of intentionalexposure to x-rate...
Defining Exposure to X-Rated Material “In the last 12 months have you watched an X-rated movie at a friend’s house, your ...
Defining Exposure toViolent X-Rated Material In the last 12 months have you seen a movie thatshowed… In the last 12 mont...
Defining SexualAggression In the last 12 months, how many times haveyou ever kissed, touched, or done anythingsexual with...
Statistical Methods Thirteen households were dropped because theydidn’t meet the criteria of having valid data for85% of ...
Frequency of IntentionalExposure to X-Rated Material2.4 3.11.513.110.510.3024681012141618Magazines Movies InternetMedium o...
Characteristics of YouthWho Viewed X-RatedMaterial Male Generally older ↑ Witnessing caregiver spousal abuse ↑ Alcohol...
Overlap in mediums(n=1578)80%11%5% 4%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%0 1 2 3% of youth reportingnumber of mediums
Prevalence andCharacteristics of SexualAggression Perpetration 2.3% of sample reported perpetration Perpetrators (compar...
X-Rated Exposure andSexual Aggression2.31.524.919.5Magazines and Movies InternetNon-violent exposureViolent exposure******...
X-Rated Exposure andSexual Aggression1.912.91.2Magazines and Movies InternetNon-violent exposureViolent exposure***Adjuste...
Summary Intentional exposure to violent x-rated materialappears to be strongly related to concurrentreports of sexually a...
Summary Concerns about rampant use of Internet toview x-rated material unsupported by data 20% of youth report intention...
Summary Majority of youth who report intentional exposureto x-rated material do not engage in SA Intentional exposure to...
Implications These data provide a foundation to build uponour understanding of youth exposures toviolence on the Internet...
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  • Respondents are recruited through partner websites, emails with online partners, refer-a-friend, trade shows, client supplied lists of customers, TV advertisements, direct mail, telephone recruitment of targeted populations
  • In general, panelists are invited to participate in surveys no more frequently than once every three weeks
  • As the children were recruited from the adults who initially agreed to take the study, the sample selection bias is found primarily in the characteristics of adults who chose to take this survey. Hence, only adults were propensity weighted and the propensity weights that were generated for the adults were applied to the child. The propensity score was derived from key questions in the survey that examined the attitudes and behaviors of the respondents as well as the demographic questions.
  • As the children were recruited from the adults who initially agreed to take the study, the sample selection bias is found primarily in the characteristics of adults who chose to take this survey. Hence, only adults were propensity weighted and the propensity weights that were generated for the adults were applied to the child. The propensity score was derived from key questions in the survey that examined the attitudes and behaviors of the respondents as well as the demographic questions.
  • 28% report 31-1hour 24% report half hour or less 22% report 1-2 hours
  • These questions were randomized for each participant to adjust for response bias due to ordering Response options: 1) No, I don’t know what this is; 2) No, I know what this is but I’ve never gone; 3) Yes
  • These questions were randomized for each participant to adjust for response bias due to ordering Response options: 1) No, I don’t know what this is; 2) No, I know what this is but I’ve never gone; 3) Yes
  • This question was randomized with two other questions assessing violent behavior for each participant to adjust for response bias due to ordering Response options: 1) Every day / Almost every day; 2) Once or twice a week; 3) Once or twice a month; 4) A few times a year; 5) Less than a few times a year; 6) Never; 7) Decline to answer
  • Intentional exposure to pornography online: Is everybody doing it?

    1. 1. Intentional Exposure to Pornography Online:Is everybody doing it?Merle Hamburger PhDCenters for Disease Control and PreventionMichele Ybarra MPH PhDCenter for Innovative Public Health ResearchPhilip J Leaf PhDMarie Diener West PhDJohns Hopkins School of Public HealthInternational Family Violence and ChildVictimization Research Conference, July 8-10 2007Portsmouth, New Hampshire* Thank you for your interest in this presentation.  Please note thatanalyses included herein are preliminary. More recent, finalizedanalyses may be available by contacting CiPHR for further information.
    2. 2. Background An estimated 97% of youth use the Internet(Lenhart, Madden & Hitlin, 2005; USC Annenberg School Center for theDigital Future, 2005). The majority of adolescent Internet-health researchhas focused on victimization (e.g., Finkelhor, Mitchell,Wolak, 2000; Wolak, Mitchell, Finkelhor, 2006; Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak,Finkelhor, 2006) and health seeking behavior (e.g., Grey,Klein, Noyce et al., 2005; Ybarra & Suman, 2006).
    3. 3. Background: The positiveside of the Internet About one in four adolescents have used theInternet to look for health information in the lastyear (Lenhart et al., 2001; Rideout et al., 2001; Ybarra & Suman, 2006). 41% of adolescents indicate having changed theirbehavior because of information they found online(Kaiser Family Foundation, 2002), and 14% have soughthealthcare services as a result (Rideout, 2001).
    4. 4. Background: The negativeside of the Internet Internet harassment has increased from 6% to9%, while unwanted sexual solicitation decreasedfrom 19% to 13% from 1999 to 2005 (Mitchell, Wolak,Finkelhor, 2006). Just over one-third of youth targeted by Internetvictimization report feeling very/extremely upset orafraid because of the incident (Wolak, Mitchell, Finkelhor,2006; Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor, 2006)
    5. 5. Problem StatementDespite recent research which has highlightedthe impact negative interpersonal experiencessome young people are having online (e.g.,unwanted sexual solicitation, harassment), littlehas been reported about the ways in whichyouth are using the Internet to act out.
    6. 6. Panel Presentations Describe the Growing up with Media (GuwM) study Use GuwM data to examine: Instigation of unwanted sexual solicitation; Intentional exposure to pornography online –especially violent content; and Intentional access to violent web sites.
    7. 7. GuwM Methodology Conducted between August 24 to September 14,2006 Participants recruited from Harris Poll On Line 1,591 households (one caregiver, one child) weresurveyed online
    8. 8. Harris Poll On Line HPOL is a double opt-in panel of millions ofrespondents. HPOL data are consistently comparable todata that has been obtained from randomtelephone samples of general populationswhen sampling and weighting is applied.
    9. 9. GuwM Eligibility ADULT Be a US resident member of the Harris Poll Online(HPOL) opt-in panel Be the most (or equally) knowledgeable of theyouth’s media use in the home English speaking YOUTH Aged 10-15 years Use the Internet at least once in the last 6 months English speaking
    10. 10. GuwM Data Methods Sample selection was stratified based on youth ageand sex. Sample was also stratified between “novice” and“experienced” survey participants.
    11. 11. GuwM Data Methods To control the sample and the increase responserate, the following steps were taken: Password-protected access to the online survey 1 reminder invitation to non-responders Cash incentives ($10 for adults, $15 for youth) On average, the adult survey took 5 minutes andthe youth survey took 21 minutes
    12. 12. Growing up with MediaData Analyses Response rate was 26% (rates can range from5-50%) Propensity scoring was applied to adjust for theadult’s (i.e., recruitment target) propensity to beonline Data were weighted to match the USpopulation of adults with children between theages of 10 and 15 years
    13. 13. Growing up with MediaData Analyses For analyses, cases were required to havevalid data for 85% of variables examined. Regression estimates are adjusted for‘dishonesty’ (6%) and the report of someone inthe room near enough to see the computerscreen (22%).
    14. 14. Youth DemographicCharacteristics 48% Female Mean age: 12.6 years (SE: 0.05) 71% White, 13% Black, 9% Mixed, 7% Other 19% Hispanic Median household income: $50,000-$74,999 Median time spent online on a typical day: 31minutes – 1 hour
    15. 15. Background Sexual aggression in adolescence 5-10% males; 1% females Pornography exposure may be linked withsexual aggression in adults Unclear how / if these data can be applied toyouth Little data exist Ethical / legal considerations of purposefulexposure
    16. 16. The Internet andX-Rated Material Estimates indicate that 95% of adolescents areonline Concern that the Internet will become primarymethod for viewing x-rated material 7-years ago  movies/magazines primarysource of intentional exposure Unclear if this has changed
    17. 17. Research QuestionsIn a sample of adolescents (ages 10-15): What is the 1-year prevalence of intentionalexposure to x-rated material? Overall exposure and violent exposure Across a variety of media How does exposure to x-rated material(nonviolent & violent) affect sexual aggression?
    18. 18. Defining Exposure to X-Rated Material “In the last 12 months have you watched an X-rated movie at a friend’s house, your house, orin the theatre where the main topic was sex?” “In the last 12 months, have you looked at an X-rated magazine, like Playboy, on purpose whereyou knew that the main topic was sex?” “In the last 12 months, have you gone to or seenan X-rated or “adult” website where the maintopic is sex?”
    19. 19. Defining Exposure toViolent X-Rated Material In the last 12 months have you seen a movie thatshowed… In the last 12 months have you ever looked at amagazine that showed… When you have gone to or seen an X-rated oradult website, have you ever seen……a person being physically hurt by anotherperson while they were doing something sexual?
    20. 20. Defining SexualAggression In the last 12 months, how many times haveyou ever kissed, touched, or done anythingsexual with another person when that persondid not want to? Dichotomized (ever / never) because of lowendorsement
    21. 21. Statistical Methods Thirteen households were dropped because theydidn’t meet the criteria of having valid data for85% of the variables. Stata was used to compute statistical analyses Differences in the distribution of characteristics byreport of seriously violent behavior were testedusing F-statistics. Associations were quantified using logisticregression.
    22. 22. Frequency of IntentionalExposure to X-Rated Material2.4 3.11.513.110.510.3024681012141618Magazines Movies InternetMedium of x-rated exposure%ofyouthreportingexposureAny exposureViolent exposure(n=1,578)
    23. 23. Characteristics of YouthWho Viewed X-RatedMaterial Male Generally older ↑ Witnessing caregiver spousal abuse ↑ Alcohol/Drug use ↑ Relational / physical bullying ↑ Starting fights ↓ Blocking software at home ↑ Know how to get around blocking software
    24. 24. Overlap in mediums(n=1578)80%11%5% 4%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%0 1 2 3% of youth reportingnumber of mediums
    25. 25. Prevalence andCharacteristics of SexualAggression Perpetration 2.3% of sample reported perpetration Perpetrators (compared to non perpetrators):Older↓ Caregiver emotionalbond↑ Witnessing caregiverspousal abuse↑ Alcohol/Drug use↑ Anxiety↑ Relational / physicalbullying & starting fights↓ Blocking software athome↑ Know how to getaround blocking software↑ use of internet ingeneral
    26. 26. X-Rated Exposure andSexual Aggression2.31.524.919.5Magazines and Movies InternetNon-violent exposureViolent exposure******UnadjustedOddsRatio
    27. 27. X-Rated Exposure andSexual Aggression1.912.91.2Magazines and Movies InternetNon-violent exposureViolent exposure***AdjustedOddsRatio0.2*
    28. 28. Summary Intentional exposure to violent x-rated materialappears to be strongly related to concurrentreports of sexually aggressive behavior,irrespective of medium. The associations between non-violent x-ratedmaterial and sexually aggressive behavior areless clear.
    29. 29. Summary Concerns about rampant use of Internet toview x-rated material unsupported by data 20% of youth report intentional exposure to x-rated material 4.5% reported intentional exposure to violent x-rated material Intentional exposure to x-rated material mayrepresent age-appropriate curiosity
    30. 30. Summary Majority of youth who report intentional exposureto x-rated material do not engage in SA Intentional exposure to Violent x-rated materialvia traditional media is a risk factor for SAperpetration Intentional exposure to Non-violent x-ratedmaterial via the Internet appears to be protectiveagainst SA perpetration
    31. 31. Implications These data provide a foundation to build uponour understanding of youth exposures toviolence on the Internet, including x-ratedviolence. The findings provide justification for continuedresearch to better understand who may bemore vulnerable to the impact of Internetviolence.

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