In 1994 I wrote Child Safety on the Information Highway and “My Rules for Online Safety.” I guess I must have done a pretty good job, because lots of Internet safety educators are still using those “rules.” Unfortunately, they’re more than a decade out-of-date. The world is a lot different than it was in 1994. Back then, most people in the world weren’t even on the Internet. Most of those online were using proprietary services like CompuServe or the Source or even cruder electronic bulletin boards, often running on old Apple II computers.
The web started the process of change, but even it took awhile to evolve. During the first decade of the web – which started to catch on around 1994, most people online were consumers of information, soaking in material served up by media companies Although there were some primitive socializing tools at the time, the net was still pretty much a top down affair. Most people online – whether children or adults – were consumers of information. Early adopting companies, government agencies, universities and – even a few K-12 schools – were using the web to disseminate information, but those of us online were mostly just consuming it.
Putting up a fence might keep a kid away from a specific swimming pool but teaching them to swim protects them around all water and helps them enjoy the water as well.
Updated Online Safety 3.0 Talk for Mediterranean Association of International Schools
Online Safety 3.0 Larry Magid, Ed.D Co-director ConnectSafely.org Founder SafeKids.com Education Committee Chair: Obama Admin’s Online Safety Technology Working Group Slides are available at SafeKids.com/mais
I wrote this in 1994. Too bad people are stillfollowing this old advice
And pretty much the same model online in the 80’s and 90’s CompuServe 1981Me, in 1981 on my MosaicApple II with an browser, 1993acoustic MODEM
But, in case anyone didn’tnotice, things have changed Media is now: • One to one • One to many • Many to many We are all publishers and youth are leading the charge
Evolution of online safetyChildren as victims:1.0 (most of the 90’s) Pornography & predators: Protecting children from bad adults. Children as consumers of information, not as creators and based on assumptions of risk, not actual research2.0 (around 2007) Protecting children from peers. Recognizing that kids can create content harm other kids and themselves. Cyberbullying & posting inappropriate or dangerous content
Almost universal among youthIn the US:• 95% of 12-17 year olds use Internet• 70% go online daily• 46% several times a day• 80% of online teens use social networkingIn Europe• 9-16 year olds spend average of 88 minutes per day online*Source: Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network SitesHow American teens navigate the new world of "digital citizenshipPew Internet & American Life Project, November 2011* EU Kids Online / Sept 2011
OS 3.0 = Empowerment• Research-based, not fear-based, so relevant• Flexible, layered – not one-size-fits-all• Respectful of youth – stakeholders in positive outcomes, not just potential victims• Positive: Not just safety from (bad outcomes) but safety for good outcomes• Comprehensive = Incorporates safety, security, citizenship, and research/information literacy From Online Safety 3.0 (os3.connectsafely.org)
Elements of Online Safety 3.0• View youth as participants and stakeholders in positive Internet use rather than potential victims, and empower them to protect themselves.• Promote good citizenship• Teach new media literacy• Understand the value of informal learning• Be accurate and honest about risks• Encourage industry to engage in best practices, including promoting good citizenship in the communities they run os3.ConnectSafely.org
The ‘Net effect’ For the most part, the online world is pretty much like the “real world,” but there are a few special things to think about • It can be permanent • Material can be copied and pasted • Lots of people can see it • You don’t know for sure who’s seeing it AND • Disinhibition: Lack of visual cues reduces empathySource: adapted from danah boyd:Taken out of Context, 2008
Fences have their place but … To keep kids safe around all water, we teach kids to swim
Ultimately, the best filter runs between the child’s ears, not on a deviceProtection that lasts a lifetime Training wheels for young kids
Adults are worried about•Predators•Posting/sending inappropriate content•Cyberbullying & harassment•Privacy and Reputation
And while these are risks •Online predator risk is extremely low •Only 2% of kids sent a “sext” •85% of US kids have not been harassed online in last 12 month •Across Europe, 6% of 9 to 16-year-old internet users have been bullied online. 3% confess to having bullied others. •81% of US teens use privacy controls •62% friends only •19% friends of friendsSource: Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network SitesHow American teens navigate the new world of "digital citizenshipPew Internet & American Life Project, November 2011* EU Kids Online, Sept 2011
Top 10 myths about children’s online risks1 Digital natives know it all: Only 36% 9- 7 Offline risks migrate online: It cannot be16-year-olds say it is very true that they assumed that those who are low-riskknow more about the internet than their offline are protected while online.parents 8 Putting the PC in the living room will2 Everyone is creating their own content: help: Advice is out of dateOnly 20% recently used a file-sharing siteor created an avatar, half that number 9 Teaching digital skills reduces online risk:wrote a blog. Most children use the The more digital skills a child has, the moreinternet for ready-made content. risks they are likely to encounter as they broaden their online experience. What3 Under 13s can’t use social networking: more skills can do is reduce the potential38% of 9-12-year-olds have a social harm that risks can bring.networking profile. 10 Children can get around safety4 Everyone watches porn online: One in software: Fewer than one in three 11-16seven children saw sexual images online in year-olds say they can change filterthe past year preferences. And most say their parents’ actions to limit their internet activity is5 Bullies are baddies: 60% who bully helpful.(online or offline) have been bullied only1% had a bad experience. Source: EU Kids Online / Sept 2011
How you treat others affects your risk “Among those who do not bully others, being bullied is relatively rare 8% offline only, and 4% online”* “Youth who engage in online aggressive behavior by making rude or nasty comments or frequently embarrassing others are more than twice as likely to report online interpersonal victimization.” +* EU Kids Online +Internet Safety Technology Taskforce
We are not raising a generation of monsters • Most kids don’t bully • Most kids (69%) say people their age are mostly kind to each other on social networking sites • 20% have been bullied in past year • 12% have been bullied in person • 15% have been victims of “online meanness.”Source: Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network SitesHow American teens navigate the new world of "digital citizenshipPew Internet & American Life Project, November 2011
Social norms approach • People emulate how they think their peers behave • If people think their friends don’t smoke, they’re less likely to smoke. • Same is true with over-eating, excessive alcohol use and other negative behaviors, including bullying**Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the SocialNorms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008
Example of positive normingSource: Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social NormsModel to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008
Thank you! Larry Magidlarry@connectsafely.org Slides are available at SafeKids.com/mais