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Online Safety 3.0 Empowering  and  Protecting Youth Anne Collier Executive Director, Net Family News, Inc. Co-director Con...
Net safety as we know it is  obsolete <ul><li>One-size-fits-all; fear-based </li></ul><ul><li>1.0 focused largely on crime...
Web 1.0…
On Web 2.0...  --Michael Kinsley, Slate.com, 11/27/06 “ ... everybody  knows you’re a dog.”
A  triple  media revolution  <ul><li>Media shifts of past 500 years : </li></ul><ul><li>Printing press  =>  1 to many, 1 d...
Students’  perspective ‘ Joe’s Non-Netbook’ Science Leadership Academy Philadelphia
A living  Internet <ul><li>Content is behavioral and... </li></ul><ul><li>Updated in real time  by  users </li></ul><ul><l...
What we now know from...
What are they  doing   in there? <ul><li>Good or normative… </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging out </li></ul><ul><li>“ Social produ...
What  else  are they doing  in there? <ul><li>Neutral or negative… </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking validation </li></ul><ul><li>...
Largely a positive experience <ul><li>“ People in social network sites are generally kind ”  – Amanda Lenhart of Pew/Inter...
The under-age question <ul><li>7.5 million U13s in Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>FB removes upon detection, but  can’t keep u...
2 types of social networking <ul><li>Friendship -driven  (84% of 15-25 YOs in a qualitative study at Harvard School of Edu...
Social networking’ s progression <ul><li>Hanging out  – casual socializing </li></ul><ul><li>Messing around  – collaborati...
Interest-driven communities <ul><li>“ We're growing a bunch of [young] people who see what they do as social and collabora...
<ul><li>Cellphones are  mobile  computers  with... </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile social networking  </li></ul><...
Teens prefer texting <ul><li>87% of teens text  (80% use SNS)   </li></ul><ul><li>54% of all teens text  daily  (compared ...
In other words... © 2010 Columbus Dispatch
Videogames huge too <ul><li>87 </li></ul>
What we now know <ul><li>...from youth-risk research: </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment & cyberbullying =  most common risk </l...
Types of online safety  <ul><li>Physical safety  – freedom from physical harm </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological safety  – fr...
OS 3.0: A  layered  approach <ul><li>Primary : new media literacy & citizenship – all students, grade levels, appropriate ...
The ‘ Net  effect’ <ul><li>  How the Internet  changes the equation... </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence & searchability:  Net...
What  else  we know <ul><li>...from youth-risk research: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Youth who engage in online </li></ul><ul><li>...
3.4X “ Posting personal information does not by itself increase risk.”   --Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2...
Teens’  response to strangers <ul><li>&quot;For all Internet problems, the vast majority of [SN] teens either had appropri...
As for predators in social network sites...  “ There is  no evidenc e predators are stalking or abducting unsuspecting vic...
Question Has the growth in  young people’ s use of the Internet  correlated with a rise in  sexual abuse against children?
Rate per 10,000 Children (<18) Source: NCANDS / Finkelhor & Jones 51% Decline  ( during  the period of the Web’ s existenc...
Source: FBI & CACRC, 2009 & ‘ 10  The trend  continues <ul><li>“ Substantiated cases of child sexual abuse declined 58% fr...
As for other risk factors... “ Youth  violence  is  way down , as is  teen pregnancy ,  smoking ,  alcohol and drug use , ...
And this just in… Declines in 2 online risks  <ul><li>Sexual solicitations of minors  – from 20% in 2000 to 13% in 2005 to...
Cyberbullying Daniel Nicholls Melbourne 2004
Defining ‘cyberbullying’ better <ul><li>Willful repeated aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with real life </li></ul>...
More cyberbullying facts <ul><li>About 20% of US teens have  ever  experienced cyberbullying </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% of...
Whole school approach needed <ul><li>“ Because a bully’s success depends heavily on  context , attempts to prevent bullyin...
Most kids don’ t cyberbully Source: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey
Perception => reality: The power of ‘ social norming’ Source: Craig & Perkins, Hobart and William Smith Colleges 2008
Reinforcing social norms Source: Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social Norms Model to Ad...
‘ Sexting’ defined <ul><li>Nude or sexually explicit photo-sharing or text messages </li></ul><ul><li>Usually via cellphon...
Sexting very rare <ul><li>Teens engaging in sexting a lot less than previously thought </li></ul><ul><li>1% of teens surve...
Possible non-legal consequences <ul><li>Emotional or reputational damage </li></ul><ul><li>School discipline </li></ul><ul...
“ Promote digital citizenship and new media literacy in pre-K-12 education  as a national priority.” –  Youth Safety on a ...
The  pillars  of citizenship learning Photo by Julian Turner <ul><li>Infrastructure  </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul>...
<ul><li>It’ s  protective </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes agency, self-actualizatio...
The most basic definition “ The central task of citizenship  is learning how  to be good to one another.”  –  A.J. Patrick...
5 key elements <ul><li>Participation  or “civic engagement” </li></ul><ul><li>Norms of behavior  or &quot;good citizenship...
Expanded definition (draft) <ul><li>Citizenship: the rights & responsibilities of full, positive engagement in a participa...
<ul><li>“  As   a society, we have spent too much  time focused on  what media are doing  to  young people  and not enough...
So what  is  Online Safety 3.0? <ul><li>Research-based , not fear-based, so  relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible, layered ...
Thank you! <ul><li>Anne Collier </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>http...
 
A V3.0 school board... <ul><li>Supports and promotes  pre-K-12 instruction in citizenship and media literacy, online & off...
‘ Sexting’
Why  do some kids ‘ sext’? <ul><li>Teen “ romance” – expression of shared intimacy with partner </li></ul><ul><li>Flirting...
The  ultimate  in social norming <ul><li>In 2006, two Nova Scotia boys started  what became a movement: Wearing Pink </li>...
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Online Safety 3.0

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Online Safety 3.0

  1. 1. Online Safety 3.0 Empowering and Protecting Youth Anne Collier Executive Director, Net Family News, Inc. Co-director ConnectSafely.org
  2. 2. Net safety as we know it is obsolete <ul><li>One-size-fits-all; fear-based </li></ul><ul><li>1.0 focused largely on crime & adult content </li></ul><ul><li>2.0 added peer-related harm </li></ul><ul><li>Both: Youth only as potential victims </li></ul><ul><li>Technology focus: both problem & solution </li></ul><ul><li>Not relevant to its “beneficiaries”!! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Web 1.0…
  4. 4. On Web 2.0... --Michael Kinsley, Slate.com, 11/27/06 “ ... everybody knows you’re a dog.”
  5. 5. A triple media revolution <ul><li>Media shifts of past 500 years : </li></ul><ul><li>Printing press => 1 to many, 1 direction </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph/phone => 1 to 1, 2-way, real time </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded media (photos/sound/film) => 1 to many, 1 direction, asynchronous </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded thru the air (radio/TV) => 1 to many, 1 direction, asynchronous then real time </li></ul><ul><li>Internet => 1 to 1, 1 to many, many to many (all directions); real time ; pipeline for all other media; user-produced ; social </li></ul>
  6. 6. Students’ perspective ‘ Joe’s Non-Netbook’ Science Leadership Academy Philadelphia
  7. 7. A living Internet <ul><li>Content is behavioral and... </li></ul><ul><li>Updated in real time by users </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Mirrors real life </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded in “ real life” </li></ul><ul><li>Risk spectrum maps to offline </li></ul>
  8. 8. What we now know from...
  9. 9. What are they doing in there? <ul><li>Good or normative… </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging out </li></ul><ul><li>“ Social producing” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning social rules </li></ul><ul><li>Designing profiles (self-expression) </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring identity </li></ul><ul><li>Writing software code </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing/producing music </li></ul><ul><li>Producing & editing videos </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing interests </li></ul><ul><li>Social/political activism </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping in touch with friends long-term </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment </li></ul>
  10. 10. What else are they doing in there? <ul><li>Neutral or negative… </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking validation </li></ul><ul><li>Competing in a popularity contest </li></ul><ul><li>Venting </li></ul><ul><li>Showing off </li></ul><ul><li>Embarrassing self </li></ul><ul><li>Damaging reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Pulling pranks </li></ul><ul><li>Getting even </li></ul><ul><li>Threatening </li></ul><ul><li>Harassing </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying </li></ul>
  11. 11. Largely a positive experience <ul><li>“ People in social network sites are generally kind ” – Amanda Lenhart of Pew/Internet </li></ul><ul><li>95% of Americans 12-17 are online, 80% of them use social sites </li></ul><ul><li>69% say their peers are mostly kind to each other in SNS, 20% say peers are mostly unkind, 11% that “it depends.” </li></ul><ul><li>78% of SN teens report at least one good outcome and 41% report at least one negative outcome </li></ul><ul><li>88% have witnessed others being mean or cruel </li></ul>
  12. 12. The under-age question <ul><li>7.5 million U13s in Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>FB removes upon detection, but can’t keep up </li></ul><ul><li>Parents not only not worried, they help </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook not designed for U13s… </li></ul><ul><li>But also not dangerous for U13s </li></ul><ul><li>Unintended consequences </li></ul>Source: Pew Internet & American Life; Consumer Reports
  13. 13. 2 types of social networking <ul><li>Friendship -driven (84% of 15-25 YOs in a qualitative study at Harvard School of Education) </li></ul><ul><li>Interest -driven (80% involved in “at least one such online community”) </li></ul>Source: Digital Youth Project, November 2008 ...on all devices, fixed and mobile:
  14. 14. Social networking’ s progression <ul><li>Hanging out – casual socializing </li></ul><ul><li>Messing around – collaborative tinkering with info, ideas, media </li></ul><ul><li>Geeking out – using media the way artists do, in a focused, professional way </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interest-driven communities <ul><li>“ We're growing a bunch of [young] people who see what they do as social and collaborative and as part of joining communities ... </li></ul><ul><li>“ They function quite naturally in ‘teams,’ where everybody is an expert in something but they know how to integrate their expertise with everybody else’s; they know how to understand the other person’s expertise so they can pull off an action together in a complicated world.” – author and professor James Paul Gee </li></ul>Source: Digital Youth Project, November 2008
  16. 16. <ul><li>Cellphones are mobile computers with... </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile social networking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photo- & video-sharing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web browsing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Texting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GPS & social mapping </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile phones will be the “ world’s primary tool for connecting to the Ne t” by 2020–Pew. </li></ul>Mobile social tools
  17. 17. Teens prefer texting <ul><li>87% of teens text (80% use SNS) </li></ul><ul><li>54% of all teens text daily (compared to 26% who use SNS daily) </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 send 50+ texts/day (1,500/mo.) </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 send 100+/day (3,000/mo.) </li></ul><ul><li>Teens exchange an avg of 3,417 texts/mo. (7 per waking hour) </li></ul>
  18. 18. In other words... © 2010 Columbus Dispatch
  19. 19. Videogames huge too <ul><li>87 </li></ul>
  20. 20. What we now know <ul><li>...from youth-risk research: </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment & cyberbullying = most common risk </li></ul><ul><li>Not all youth are equally at risk </li></ul><ul><li>A child’ s psychosocial makeup & environment are better predictors of online risk than the technology he or she uses </li></ul><ul><li>No single technological development can solve youth online risk </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of online safety <ul><li>Physical safety – freedom from physical harm </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological safety – freedom from cruelty, harassment, and exposure to potentially disturbing material </li></ul><ul><li>Reputational and legal safety – freedom from unwanted social, academic, professional, and legal consequences that could affect you for a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Identity, property, and community safety – freedom from theft of identity & property </li></ul>
  22. 22. OS 3.0: A layered approach <ul><li>Primary : new media literacy & citizenship – all students, grade levels, appropriate subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary : more focused prevention e.g., bullying, sexting; taught by experts as needed (situational) & developmentally appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary : prevention and intervention for youth already at risk; done by social workers, mental health professionals, etc. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The ‘ Net effect’ <ul><li> How the Internet changes the equation... </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence & searchability: Net as permanent searchable archive </li></ul><ul><li>Replicability : ability to copy and paste from anywhere, to anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability: high potential visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible audiences: you never know who ’s watching </li></ul><ul><li>Blurring of public and private: boundaries not clear </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Disinhibition : Lack of visual cues reduces empathy </li></ul>Source: danah boyd: Taken out of Context, 2008
  24. 24. What else we know <ul><li>...from youth-risk research: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Youth who engage in online </li></ul><ul><li>aggressive behavior by making rude or nasty comments or frequently embarrassing others are more than twice as likely to report online interpersonal victimization.&quot; </li></ul>
  25. 25. 3.4X “ Posting personal information does not by itself increase risk.” --Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2/07
  26. 26. Teens’ response to strangers <ul><li>&quot;For all Internet problems, the vast majority of [SN] teens either had appropriate reactions or ignored the behavior. ” </li></ul><ul><li>– Prof. Larry Rosen </li></ul><ul><li>92% responded appropriately to sexual solicitation </li></ul><ul><li>90% to harassment </li></ul><ul><li>94% to unwanted exposure to sexual materials </li></ul>
  27. 27. As for predators in social network sites... “ There is no evidenc e predators are stalking or abducting unsuspecting victims based on information they posted in social sites.” – Crimes Against Children Research Center, 3/09
  28. 28. Question Has the growth in young people’ s use of the Internet correlated with a rise in sexual abuse against children?
  29. 29. Rate per 10,000 Children (<18) Source: NCANDS / Finkelhor & Jones 51% Decline ( during the period of the Web’ s existence) Answer: No Confirmed cases of child sexual abuse
  30. 30. Source: FBI & CACRC, 2009 & ‘ 10 The trend continues <ul><li>“ Substantiated cases of child sexual abuse declined 58% from 1992-2008.” </li></ul><ul><li>Latest data : Child sexual abuse in 2008 was down 6% from the previous year. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2008 figures “add to an already substantial positive long-term trend, especially for sexual and physical abuse.” </li></ul>
  31. 31. As for other risk factors... “ Youth violence is way down , as is teen pregnancy , smoking , alcohol and drug use , suicides , and high school drop-out rates – whereas civic engagement has improved along with youth taking more AP classes in high school. Standardized educational achievement scores have either remained steady or improved slightly.  Aside from obesity, perhaps, most trends in youth behavior are moving in a positive direction.” – Prof. Christopher Ferguson, Texas A&M
  32. 32. And this just in… Declines in 2 online risks <ul><li>Sexual solicitations of minors – from 20% in 2000 to 13% in 2005 to just-released 2010 figure </li></ul><ul><li>Unwanted exposure to online pornography – number of US 10-to-17-year-olds experiencing it decreased from 34% to 23% over the same period </li></ul><ul><li>Online harassment – in the only increase over the past 5 years, 11% of youth reported an online harassment experience, up from 9% in 2005, and 6% in 2000 </li></ul>Increase in 1 online risk
  33. 33. Cyberbullying Daniel Nicholls Melbourne 2004
  34. 34. Defining ‘cyberbullying’ better <ul><li>Willful repeated aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with real life </li></ul><ul><li>Power imbalance (sometimes anonymity) </li></ul><ul><li>Not just harassment, conflict, or drama </li></ul><ul><li>Bully & target often switch roles </li></ul>Sources: UNH CACRC, ‘07; Agatston, Kowalski, Limber, ‘09; Burgess-Proctor, Hinduja, Patchin, ‘09
  35. 35. More cyberbullying facts <ul><li>About 20% of US teens have ever experienced cyberbullying </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% of cases get reported </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral more than technological </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid, fast, hard to escape </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on environment: school, not technology </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cyberbullying” is an adult term </li></ul>Sources: UNH CACRC, ‘07; Agatston, Kowalski, Limber, ‘09; Burgess-Proctor, Hinduja, Patchin, ‘09
  36. 36. Whole school approach needed <ul><li>“ Because a bully’s success depends heavily on context , attempts to prevent bullying should concentrate primarily on changing the context rather than directly addressing the victim’s or the bully’s behavior.” This involves “the entire school community.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Yale psychology Prof. Alan Yazdin and Carlo Rotella at Boston College </li></ul>
  37. 37. Most kids don’ t cyberbully Source: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey
  38. 38. Perception => reality: The power of ‘ social norming’ Source: Craig & Perkins, Hobart and William Smith Colleges 2008
  39. 39. Reinforcing social norms Source: Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social Norms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008
  40. 40. ‘ Sexting’ defined <ul><li>Nude or sexually explicit photo-sharing or text messages </li></ul><ul><li>Usually via cellphones, but possible via other devices and Web </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal when involving minors </li></ul><ul><li>Overzealous prosecutors have charged teens with production, possession, distribution of child pornography–felonies </li></ul>
  41. 41. Sexting very rare <ul><li>Teens engaging in sexting a lot less than previously thought </li></ul><ul><li>1% of teens surveyed had created or appeared in sexually explicit pictures </li></ul><ul><li>21% of that 1% reported feeling very or extremely upset, embarrassed, or afraid as a result </li></ul><ul><li>7% have received “nude or nearly nude” photos </li></ul><ul><li>25% of that 7% reported having those negative feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Arrest is not typical in youth sexting cases </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers’ conclusion : “Appearing in, creating, or receiving sexual images is far from a normative behavior for youth.” </li></ul>
  42. 42. Possible non-legal consequences <ul><li>Emotional or reputational damage </li></ul><ul><li>School discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible viewership – can be forwarded to anyone </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially searchable on the Web, possibly forever </li></ul>
  43. 43. “ Promote digital citizenship and new media literacy in pre-K-12 education as a national priority.” – Youth Safety on a Living Internet: Report of the Online Safety & Technology Working Group Our report to Congress, June 2010...
  44. 44. The pillars of citizenship learning Photo by Julian Turner <ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>It’ s protective </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes agency, self-actualization </li></ul><ul><li>It turns users into stakeholders – citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Supports community well-being & goals </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship is a verb! </li></ul>Why citizenship?
  46. 46. The most basic definition “ The central task of citizenship is learning how to be good to one another.” – A.J. Patrick Liszkiewicz
  47. 47. 5 key elements <ul><li>Participation or “civic engagement” </li></ul><ul><li>Norms of behavior or &quot;good citizenship&quot; or etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Rights and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of membership or belonging </li></ul><ul><li>The literacies : tech, media, social </li></ul>
  48. 48. Expanded definition (draft) <ul><li>Citizenship: the rights & responsibilities of full, positive engagement in a participatory world </li></ul><ul><li>Rights – access & participation, free speech, privacy, physical & psychological safety, safety of material and intellectual property </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities – respect & civility => self & others; protecting own/others’ rights & property; respectful participation; learning and benefitting from the literacies of a networked world </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>“ As a society, we have spent too much time focused on what media are doing to young people and not enough time asking what young people are doing with media . Rather, we need to embrace an approach based on media ethics, one that empowers young people to take greater responsibility for their own actions and holds them accountable for the choices they make as media producers and members of online communities.” – Prof. Henry Jenkins, USC </li></ul>‘ With great power comes great responsibility’
  50. 50. So what is Online Safety 3.0? <ul><li>Research-based , not fear-based, so relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible, layered – not one-size-fits-all </li></ul><ul><li>Respectful of youth agency – stakeholders in making it good , not just potential victims </li></ul><ul><li>Positive, empowering : Not just safety from (bad outcomes) but safety for ... </li></ul><ul><li>Full, constructive engagement in participatory media & society </li></ul>
  51. 51. Thank you! <ul><li>Anne Collier </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>http://os3.connectsafely.org </li></ul>
  52. 53. A V3.0 school board... <ul><li>Supports and promotes pre-K-12 instruction in citizenship and media literacy, online & offline </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages social media learning in the classroom so students can practice digital citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters a whole-school-community approach to anti-social behavior online and offline </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the preparation of students for full, constructive engagement in participatory media, culture, democracy. </li></ul>
  53. 54. ‘ Sexting’
  54. 55. Why do some kids ‘ sext’? <ul><li>Teen “ romance” – expression of shared intimacy with partner </li></ul><ul><li>Flirting or relationship currency </li></ul><ul><li>“ Truth or Dare” (normative game gone very wrong) </li></ul><ul><li>Peer pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge ( “revenge porn”) </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying or intimidation ( “pranks”) </li></ul><ul><li>Blackmail </li></ul>
  55. 56. The ultimate in social norming <ul><li>In 2006, two Nova Scotia boys started what became a movement: Wearing Pink </li></ul>

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