–5– Sentence: Comprehension and MemoryKuntum Trilestari (20112506002)PsycholinguisticsDr. Tahrun, M.Pd.Dr. Bambang A. Loenetto, M.A.
PROCESSING UNITS Sentence and Clause as Unit In physical appearance A written sentence Capital letter – period A spoken sentence High pitch – lengthened sound and pause In content A sentence expresses one complete thought A topic – a comment In syntactic structure A sentence is the top- A subject - a predicate level constituent
PROCESSING UNITS Sentence and Clause as Unit Whether a clause is complete or not Clauses are affects its perceptual effectiviness as a units unit Example: • After the cook stole the women’s bag... • Meeting the pretty young girl...
PROCESSING UNITS Phrase and Word as Unit Sentence Clause Phrase Consists of a few content words Word Frequency, length, a nd importance of a word affect how it is processed Example: I know that (the/this)... desert trains young people to be especially tough
Case-Role AssignmentCASE-ROLE ASSIGNMENT AND S-V PROCESSING • Case-role assignment in English is based partly on the syntactic factor of word order. NVN = SVO = AAP (NOUN-VERB-NOUN) (SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT) (AGENT-ACTION-PATIENT) Words are represented as many semantic microfeatures: NOUN: HUMAN (human or nonhuman), Gender (male, female, neutral) VERB: DOER (yes or no), CAUSE (yes, no- cause, no-change)
Subject – Verb ProcessingCASE-ROLE ASSIGNMENT AND S-V PROCESSING Example: An interpreter must find • The girl standing beside the and relate lady had a blue dress. the subject and its • The dog teased the cat that verb. chased the rat that ran. • The rat that the cat that the dog teased chased ran.
STRUCTURALLY RELATED Relative Frequency of Sentence Structures SENTENCES SAADs (Simple – Affirmative – Active – Declarative) Example: Common He read the used book. assert new information with the least presupposition.
STRUCTURALLY RELATED SENTENCES Negative Sentence Take Its many Syntactically Processed in longer to more complex two stages possible Cognitively, Semantically, Pragmatically, Syntactically complex process meaning Example: 1. John gave Mary a book. 2. John did not give Mary a book
STRUCTURALLY RELATED SENTENCES Passive Sentence The girl was kissed by Example: The boy kissed the girl the boy
FACTORS IN COMPREHENSION PRAGMATIC & SEMANTIC Pragmatic Factor: Plausibility Plausible sentence: • e.q: The mother feeds her baby milk Implausible sentence: • e.q: The baby feeds its mother milk Neutral sentence: • e.q: The baby smiles at the mother e.q: The mother smiles at the baby Nonreversible passive: • 1. The patient was treated by the doctor • 2.a. The boy was hit by the girl • 2.b. The girl was hit by the boy
FACTORS IN COMPREHENSION Semantic Factors PRAGMATIC & SEMANTIC individual content words and Manipulated test sentence: their relations in a sentence. 1. Well integrated. The little boy drank the milk. 2. Poorly integrated. The aunt saw the door and left. 3. Anomalous. My tasty owner spilled Can be manipulated in the the captain madly. degree to which the content words in a clause can be Syntactic complexity: integrated 4. Simple. The boy hit the ball. 5. Compound. The boy hit the ball and ran. 6. Complex. After hitting his sister, the brother cried. Sentence complex words 7. Scrambled. the ate fat grass green occur infrequently, have abstract cattle the. meaning, ambiguous, novel or complex
PRAGMATIC & SEMANTICFACTORS IN COMPREHENSION A Gist A Product of Comprehension –
AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE Autonomous Modular Processor COMPREHENSION MODELS: PROCESSING Retrieves words from the lexicon using only phonological information. Produces a constituent structure for a sentence using only syntactic information. Constructs a representation of the meaning of the sentence, using knowledge of the world. Polysemous word: “watch” I bought the watch I will watch
COMPREHENSION MODELS:AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE PROCESSING Syntactic Factors Pragmatic-Semantic Vs
COMPREHENSION MODELS:AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE PROCESSING Context Effect on Word Recognition
COMPREHENSION MODELS:AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE PROCESSING Computers Sentence Understanding by
CONCLUSION Conclusion A sentence or clause serves a major processing unit. An interpreter of a sentence must relate the two critical constituents of a sentence (SV) A SAAD tends to be easier to process. In interpreting a sentence (structural garden path, syntactic processor) prefers initial and simplest structure, which may turn out to be unparsable and to require reanalysis. A gist is a product of sentence comprehension (key words and its relation) Theorists have proposed several parsing strategies: canonical NVN = SVO, late closure and minimal attachment. Three modular of comprehension system: lexical, structural and interpretive processor. Computer can be programed to understand a limited kind of language.