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–5–      Sentence:    Comprehension     and MemoryKuntum Trilestari (20112506002)PsycholinguisticsDr. Tahrun, M.Pd.Dr. Bam...
PROCESSING UNITS   Sentence and Clause as Unit                                    In physical appearance                  ...
PROCESSING UNITS                   Sentence and Clause as Unit                                          Whether a clause  ...
PROCESSING UNITS                     Phrase and Word as Unit                                       Sentence               ...
Case-Role AssignmentCASE-ROLE ASSIGNMENT AND S-V PROCESSING                       • Case-role assignment in English is bas...
Subject – Verb ProcessingCASE-ROLE ASSIGNMENT AND S-V PROCESSING                                     Example:             ...
STRUCTURALLY RELATED                         Relative Frequency of                         Sentence Structures     SENTENC...
STRUCTURALLY RELATED     SENTENCES                     Negative Sentence                         Take                     ...
STRUCTURALLY RELATED     SENTENCES                                  Passive Sentence                                      ...
FACTORS IN COMPREHENSION  PRAGMATIC & SEMANTIC                           Pragmatic Factor: Plausibility                   ...
FACTORS IN COMPREHENSION               Semantic Factors  PRAGMATIC & SEMANTIC                             individual conte...
PRAGMATIC & SEMANTICFACTORS IN COMPREHENSION                              A Gist                  A Product of Comprehensi...
PARSING STRATEGIES   PARSING STRATEGIES
PARSING STRATEGIES   Minimal Attachment &                         Late Closure
PARSING STRATEGIES   Filler – Gap Sentence
AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE                            Autonomous Modular Processor COMPREHENSION MODELS:      PROCESSING   ...
COMPREHENSION MODELS:AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE      PROCESSING                      Syntactic Factors                   Pr...
COMPREHENSION MODELS:AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE      PROCESSING                       Context Effect on Word Recognition
COMPREHENSION MODELS:AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE      PROCESSING                          Computers                   Senten...
CONCLUSION                          Conclusion             A sentence or clause serves a major processing unit.           ...
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Comprehension and memory

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Comprehension and memory

  1. 1. –5– Sentence: Comprehension and MemoryKuntum Trilestari (20112506002)PsycholinguisticsDr. Tahrun, M.Pd.Dr. Bambang A. Loenetto, M.A.
  2. 2. PROCESSING UNITS Sentence and Clause as Unit In physical appearance A written sentence Capital letter – period A spoken sentence High pitch – lengthened sound and pause In content A sentence expresses one complete thought A topic – a comment In syntactic structure A sentence is the top- A subject - a predicate level constituent
  3. 3. PROCESSING UNITS Sentence and Clause as Unit Whether a clause is complete or not Clauses are affects its perceptual effectiviness as a units unit Example: • After the cook stole the women’s bag... • Meeting the pretty young girl...
  4. 4. PROCESSING UNITS Phrase and Word as Unit Sentence Clause Phrase Consists of a few content words Word Frequency, length, a nd importance of a word affect how it is processed Example: I know that (the/this)... desert trains young people to be especially tough
  5. 5. Case-Role AssignmentCASE-ROLE ASSIGNMENT AND S-V PROCESSING • Case-role assignment in English is based partly on the syntactic factor of word order. NVN = SVO = AAP (NOUN-VERB-NOUN) (SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT) (AGENT-ACTION-PATIENT) Words are represented as many semantic microfeatures: NOUN: HUMAN (human or nonhuman), Gender (male, female, neutral) VERB: DOER (yes or no), CAUSE (yes, no- cause, no-change)
  6. 6. Subject – Verb ProcessingCASE-ROLE ASSIGNMENT AND S-V PROCESSING Example: An interpreter must find • The girl standing beside the and relate lady had a blue dress. the subject and its • The dog teased the cat that verb. chased the rat that ran. • The rat that the cat that the dog teased chased ran.
  7. 7. STRUCTURALLY RELATED Relative Frequency of Sentence Structures SENTENCES SAADs (Simple – Affirmative – Active – Declarative) Example: Common He read the used book. assert new information with the least presupposition.
  8. 8. STRUCTURALLY RELATED SENTENCES Negative Sentence Take Its many Syntactically Processed in longer to more complex two stages possible Cognitively, Semantically, Pragmatically, Syntactically complex process meaning Example: 1. John gave Mary a book. 2. John did not give Mary a book
  9. 9. STRUCTURALLY RELATED SENTENCES Passive Sentence The girl was kissed by Example: The boy kissed the girl the boy
  10. 10. FACTORS IN COMPREHENSION PRAGMATIC & SEMANTIC Pragmatic Factor: Plausibility Plausible sentence: • e.q: The mother feeds her baby milk Implausible sentence: • e.q: The baby feeds its mother milk Neutral sentence: • e.q: The baby smiles at the mother e.q: The mother smiles at the baby Nonreversible passive: • 1. The patient was treated by the doctor • 2.a. The boy was hit by the girl • 2.b. The girl was hit by the boy
  11. 11. FACTORS IN COMPREHENSION Semantic Factors PRAGMATIC & SEMANTIC individual content words and Manipulated test sentence: their relations in a sentence. 1. Well integrated. The little boy drank the milk. 2. Poorly integrated. The aunt saw the door and left. 3. Anomalous. My tasty owner spilled Can be manipulated in the the captain madly. degree to which the content words in a clause can be Syntactic complexity: integrated 4. Simple. The boy hit the ball. 5. Compound. The boy hit the ball and ran. 6. Complex. After hitting his sister, the brother cried. Sentence  complex  words 7. Scrambled. the ate fat grass green occur infrequently, have abstract cattle the. meaning, ambiguous, novel or complex
  12. 12. PRAGMATIC & SEMANTICFACTORS IN COMPREHENSION A Gist A Product of Comprehension –
  13. 13. PARSING STRATEGIES PARSING STRATEGIES
  14. 14. PARSING STRATEGIES Minimal Attachment & Late Closure
  15. 15. PARSING STRATEGIES Filler – Gap Sentence
  16. 16. AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE Autonomous Modular Processor COMPREHENSION MODELS: PROCESSING Retrieves words from the lexicon using only phonological information. Produces a constituent structure for a sentence using only syntactic information. Constructs a representation of the meaning of the sentence, using knowledge of the world. Polysemous word: “watch” I bought the watch I will watch
  17. 17. COMPREHENSION MODELS:AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE PROCESSING Syntactic Factors Pragmatic-Semantic Vs
  18. 18. COMPREHENSION MODELS:AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE PROCESSING Context Effect on Word Recognition
  19. 19. COMPREHENSION MODELS:AUTONOMOUS VS INTERACTIVE PROCESSING Computers Sentence Understanding by
  20. 20. CONCLUSION Conclusion A sentence or clause serves a major processing unit. An interpreter of a sentence must relate the two critical constituents of a sentence (SV) A SAAD tends to be easier to process. In interpreting a sentence (structural garden path, syntactic processor) prefers initial and simplest structure, which may turn out to be unparsable and to require reanalysis. A gist is a product of sentence comprehension (key words and its relation) Theorists have proposed several parsing strategies: canonical NVN = SVO, late closure and minimal attachment. Three modular of comprehension system: lexical, structural and interpretive processor. Computer can be programed to understand a limited kind of language.

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