English grammar (final)

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English grammar (final)

  1. 1. ENGLISH GRAMMAR
  2. 2. Main Menu Past Continuous Tense  English Alphabetic  Parts of Speech  Future Continuous Tense  Sentences  “ Verb to BE  Present Perfect Tense  “ Verb to DO  “ Verb to HAVE  Nouns  Past Perfect Tense  Countable Nouns  Future Perfect Tense  Spelling Rules for Plurals  Present Perfect Continuous  Uncountable Nouns  Imperatives Definite & Indefinite Articles  Modals  Pronouns  Comparing Adjectives  Object Pronouns  Adverbs  Reflexive Pronouns  Active & Passive  Relative Pronouns  Making Questions  Transitive & Intransitive Verbs  How  ... any/ some/  Prepositions  Making Negative  Question-Tags  TENSES  Present Simple Tense  Conditional “if” ”  Past Simple Tense  Reported Speech  Future Simple Tense  Countries and Nationalities  Present Continuous Tense 
  3. 3. English Alphabet Capital Letters .1 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Small Letters .2 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Consonant Letters b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z Vowels Letters a e i o u
  4. 4. Parts of Speech Noun Ahmed, book Pronoun I, he, she, it, etc. …….. Verb Play, played, will playAdjective rich man Adverb Ahmed writes quickly.
  5. 5. Parts of SpeechPreposition Ahmed goes to school. They traveled by plane.Conjunction Ali and Ahmad visited us yesterday.Interjection Alas! She died.
  6. 6. Parts of SpeechArticle a, an, the a This is a book. an This is an apple. This is the book I bought the yesterday.
  7. 7. Ali doctor.Ali is a doctor.
  8. 8. Sentences Simple SentencesCompound Sentences Complex Sentences
  9. 9. Simple Sentences I saw a boy. (1 The boy was riding a bicycle. (2 I saw a boy riding a bicycle.
  10. 10. Compound Sentences and/ but /or and:Ahmed did his homework yesterday. Anas helped him.Ahmed did his homework yesterday and Anas helped him.
  11. 11. Compound Sentences but: Khaled is rich. He is unhappy. Khaled is rich but he is unhappy. or:We can play football. We can watch TV.We can play football or we can watch TV.
  12. 12. Complex Sentences Main Clause Subordinate Clause Noun ClauseAdjectival ClauseAdverbial Clause
  13. 13. Clause & PhraseA clause is a combination of words containing a verband has a complete meaning.I saw the man who was carrying a stick.A phrase is a combination of words forming part ofthe sentence but without a verb.I saw the man carrying a stick.
  14. 14. “Verb to BEIt is used as a principal and a helping verb. Subject Present Past Past participle I am was been He, She, It is was been We, They, are were been You
  15. 15. Verb to BE “ :Examples I am a pupil. They are boys.
  16. 16. Negative Sentences with the verb to BEWe make negative statements with the verbto BE by using the word not after the verbto be. (not) Affirmative Negative I am at home. I am not at home. You are tall. You are not tall.
  17. 17. Making Questions with the verb to BE “Yes” or “No” questions and short answers “Yes” or “No” questions Short Answers Affirmative Negative Be +Subject + Complement Yes + Subject + Be No + Subject + Be + notAre you a teacher? Yes, I am. No, I am not.Were the boys at school? Yes, they were. No, they were not.
  18. 18. Verb to DO “It is used as a principal and a helping verb. Subject Present Past Past participle I, you, we, do did done they He, She, It does did done
  19. 19. Verb to HAVE “It is used as a principal and a helping verb. Subject Present Past Past participle I, you, we, have had had they He, She, It has had had
  20. 20. Negative Sentences with verb to HAVE as a main verbSubject + + not + have + Complement do/does/did I do not have a car. He does not have a new watch. They did not have breakfast this morning.
  21. 21. Making Questions with the verb to HAVE as a main verb “Yes” or “No” questions Short Answers Affirmative NegativeDo/Does/ +Subject +have + Complement Yes + Subject No + Subject + Did + do/does/did do/does/did +not Do you have a car? Yes, I do. No, I do not. Does he have a new watch? Yes, he does. No, he does not Did they have Breakfast this Yes, they did. No, they did morning? not.
  22. 22. Verb to HAVE as a helping verbVerb to have is used as a helping verb to form theperfect tense.They have lived here for two years.Adel has just finished his work.
  23. 23. Negative Sentences with verb to HAVE as a helping verb not I have lived here for a long time. I have not lived here for a long time.
  24. 24. Making Questions with verb to HAVE as a helping verb“Yes” or “No” questions and short answers They have lived here for a long time. Have they lived here for a long time? Yes, they have. No, they have not.
  25. 25. Other Uses of Verb to HAVETo express necessity in the present and past have to, has  to, had to. I have to leave now.________________________________________________ With some modal auxiliaries. You had better see a doctor.________________________________________________ ____ To show that something is caused by another person. I have my shoes cleaned every week.
  26. 26. Nouns Nouns are words we use to name:People man, father, teacher, neighbor, …Things book, table, sugar, fruit, …Places school, street, city, house, ….. Ideas freedom, honesty, truth, ….Feelings happiness, anger, boredom, joy, ….
  27. 27. Countable & Uncountable Nouns Countable Nouns: are things that arecounted as one, two, three, and so on.Uncountable Nouns: cannot be counted.
  28. 28. Countable Nouns These nouns have singular and plural forms. Before singular countable nouns you can use a/an.(a/an) You cannot use singular countable nouns alone without words such as: a, an, one, my, your, his, etc.
  29. 29. Spelling Rules for PluralsWe form plurals of most nouns by adding “s” to the singular noun. “s” Singular Plural one book two books one horse many horses
  30. 30. Spelling Rules for Plurals es sh, ch, z, x, sSingular Plural match matches bus buses dish dishes box boxes
  31. 31. Spelling Rules for Plurals ies y y Singular Plural city cities baby babies s ySingular Plural boy boys key keys
  32. 32. Spelling Rules for Plurals es o Singular Plural potato potatoes tomato tomatoes s o Singular Plural radio radios zoo zoos
  33. 33. Spelling Rules for Plurals es v fe f Singular Plural knife knives shelf shelvesSingular Pluralclassroom classroomspoliceman policemen
  34. 34. Spelling Rules for Plurals Singular Plural man men woman women child children person people foot feet tooth teeth goose geese mouse mice
  35. 35. Uncountable NounsUncountable nouns cannot be counted. es , ssalt, coffee, tea, food, meat, gold, music, blood. an a
  36. 36. Uncountable Nouns flour salt meatinformation coffee knowledge butter food tea sugar gold blood news glass cheese milk paper bread rice wood furniture rain steel grass cloth music marble
  37. 37. Uncountable NounsCoffee is a traditional drink in Saudi Arabia. Milk has many minerals. Two cups of tea are not enough for me.Five liters of oil do not operate this machine.
  38. 38. Definite & Indefinite Articles a/an are used as indefinite articles. The is used as definite articles.We put “a” before a noun starting with a constant sound. aWe put “an” before a noun starting with a vowel sound. an
  39. 39. Indefinite Articles “a” & “an”We put “a” before a noun starting with a constant sound. aWe put “an” before a noun starting with a vowel sound. an Vowels a e i o u
  40. 40. Indefinite Articles “a” & “an” We use a/an Before a singular a table countable noun. an eggBefore a job, a particular Saleh is a doctor group of people or a nationality. He is an engineer. She is an English woman.With numbers that mean He washes his every. hands ten times a day. (means every day).
  41. 41. Indefinite Articles “a” & “an” We DO NOT use a/anNo article is used with Love, beauty, abstract nouns and hatred, wood,the names of metals. silver, gold No article is used There are books before plural or on the table. uncountable nouns. Milk is good for you.
  42. 42. The Definite Article “The” The is used before: A noun that is the The river Nileonly one of its kind. The Ka’aba Names of rivers, The Arabian Gulfseas, oceans, etc…. The Red SeaA noun which is the Umar answered object of a the question. sentence. The names of Can you play the musical piano? instruments.
  43. 43. The Definite Article “The” The is used before: Names of some The United Kingdom The countries. U.S.A. With some time at the weekend expressions. in the evening With dates. On the first day of every month.With some general Listen to the radio/news. expressions. Go to the market/desert.
  44. 44. The Definite Article “The” Use article with the I saw a man. The man name that is repeated. was young. No article is used with I do not like science. Mythe names of studies of favorite subject is subjects. mathematics.No article is used before I am going to school. such words as school, I always go to bed early.home, bed, work, etc.No article is used before on Monday, in Junesuch words such as day in summer (sometimes and month names. in the summer). before breakfast.
  45. 45. Pronouns A pronoun replaces a noun. Subject Object Possessive Possessive ReflexivePronouns Pronouns Adjectives Pronouns Pronouns I me my mine myself you you your yours yourself he him his his himself she her her hers herself it it its its itself we us our ours ourselves you you your yours yourselves they them their theirs themselves
  46. 46. PronounsWe use a pronouns instead of a noun when it is clear who or what we are talking about . Examples Ali is a good student. He has passed all his tests.
  47. 47. Object PronounsWe use an object pronoun After a preposition. Do you live near them? Send the box directly to me. After to and for with verbs likemake, give, send, lend, pass, take, show. The little boy made it for her.
  48. 48. Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns are used:  for emphasis  Did you do the decorations yourself ? I did the painting myself.With some special expressions  Help yourself . Enjoy yourself. Behave yourself. I live by myself. (I live alone)
  49. 49. Relative PronounsThe relative pronouns are used to join sentences together. - who which that whose -
  50. 50. Relative Pronouns Who who Here is the man. The man is a doctor. who The man Here is the man who is a doctor.1) The man came here. The man is a doctor. The man who came here is a doctor 2) My friend swims well. He lives here. My friend who lives here swims well.
  51. 51. Relative Pronouns Whom whom The man came here. I visited him. whom him The man whom I visited came here. 1) The man was working with me. I paid him.The man whom I paid was working with me. 2) This is the girl. You gave her a flower. This is the girl whom you gave a flower.
  52. 52. Relative Pronouns Which which He found his book. He lost it yesterday. which his book him He found his book which he lost yesterday. 1) This is the house. I live in it. This is the house which I live in. 2) This book is cheap. It is very useful.This book which is very useful is cheap.
  53. 53. Relative Pronouns That that This is the boy. You met her.This is the boy that (whom) you met. I have a bird. It sings. I have a bird that (which) sings.
  54. 54. Relative Pronouns Whose whose This is the man. His car hit the boy.This is the man whose car hit the boy. the man car car whose
  55. 55. Making Questions Helping Verbsam – is – are – was – were – have – has – had – will – would – shall – should – can – could – may – might – must – ought to Are they doctors? They are doctors. Can they help us? Can she help us? Will you go to the market?
  56. 56. Making Questions do s They play tennis. Do they play tennis? I write books. Do you write books? does sAhmed plays tennis. Does Ahmed play tennis? Huda watches TV. Does Huda watch TV?
  57. 57. Making Questions did They watched TV last night.  Did they watch TV last night? I played football yesterday. Did you play football yesterday? No Yes
  58. 58. Making Questions Wh QuestionsWhere?When?Why?What?Which?Who?Whom?
  59. 59. Making Questions Wh Questions (Cont.) Whose? How?How many?How much?How long?How old? How far?
  60. 60. Steps for Making a Question When, Where, Why………..etc helping verb do s does s did
  61. 61. Steps for Making a Question They are going to eat meat. What are they going to eat? meat they are They played tennis at school. Where did they play tennis?ed did at school
  62. 62. Steps for Making a Question I you you I we my you your what who Who broke the window? Ahmed broke the window.What describes accidents? The book describes accidents.
  63. 63. How HowHe was very pleased when he met his friend.How was he when he met his friend? How Thirty boys are in this class. many How many boys are in this class? I am twenty years old. How old How old are you? You paid five pounds for this coat. HowHow much did you pay for this coat? much
  64. 64. HowIt is 450 KM from Dammam to Riyadh. How far How far is it from Dammam to Riyadh? This rope is two meters long. How How long is this rope? long This fence is four meters high. How How high is this fence? high Sami is one meter and a half tall. How tall How tall is Sami?
  65. 65. / some / any some1) We have some books. 2) Somebody was there. 3) He is somewhere. any1) Do you have any books? 2) Is anybody at home? 3) Is he anywhere?1) We do not have any books. 2) I did not see anybody. 3) He is not anywhere.
  66. 66. Making Negative not Helping Verbs are:am – is – are – was – were – have – has – had – will – would – shall – should – can – could – may – might – must – ought to They are happy. They are not happy. He can help us. He can not help us.
  67. 67. Making Negative Long forms & Short forms of Verb to be (Affirmative) (Negative)Long Forms Short Forms Long Forms Short Forms (written) (spoken) (written) (spoken) I am I’m I am not I’m not He is He’s He is not He’s not She is She’s She is not She’s not It is It’s It is not It’s not You are You’re You are not You’re not We are We’re We are not We’re not They are They’re They are not They’re not
  68. 68. Making Negative not (do, does, did) Affirmative Negative some no, anyboth……and neither………….nor either…..or neither………….nor sometimes never as………as not so…………..as all not all every no, not every
  69. 69. TENSES 1. Present Simple Tense (What always happens?) every always usuallygenerally often sometimes rarely never from time to time
  70. 70. TENSES 1. Present Simple Tense (What always happens?)I go to school everyday.They usually sleep at 11.00 p.m.We often drink coffee in the morning.She is never late to school. sAli drinks milk every morning.A cow gives us milk.
  71. 71. TENSES 2. Past Simple Tense (What happened yesterday?) ed Irregular verbsyesterday last ago in 1988 AD, in 1415 AH:
  72. 72. TENSES 2. Past Simple Tense (What happened yesterday, last night…?) was I, He, She, it were They, We, You I watched television last night. They visited their uncle yesterday.We went to Makkah two months ago.
  73. 73. TENSES 3. Future Simple Tense (What will happen tomorrow, next week, in the future?) 3. shall will will we I shall will shalltomorrow next in the future in 2010 AD, in 1430 AH :
  74. 74. TENSES3. Future Simple Tense (What willhappen tomorrow, next week, in the future?) I will go to school tomorrow. They will play football next Friday. He will join the army in the future. am , is , are going to
  75. 75. TENSES4. Present Continuous Tense (What is happening now?) am / is / are + ing I am + verb + ing He, she, it is + verb + ingThey, we, you are + verb + ingnow at the moment lookat the present time listen
  76. 76. TENSES 4. Present Continuous Tense(What is happening at the moment?) I am reading at the moment. They are watching television now. Look! The bus is coming.
  77. 77. TENSES 4. Present Continuous Tense like love want prefer wish hate dislike feel hope hear think seemappear fear consider fitbelieve trust understand
  78. 78. TENSES 5. Past Continuous Tense (What was happening?…) was / were + ingwhen while as because
  79. 79. TENSES 5. Past Continuous TenseWhile I was sleeping, a thief entered my room. When we were eating, my father came.
  80. 80. TENSES5. Past Continuous Tense A thief entered while I was sleeping . My father came when we were eating .
  81. 81. TENSES5. Past Continuous Tense while while
  82. 82. TENSES6. Future Continuous Tense (What will be happening?) ( will + be ing ) at by in from…to all after
  83. 83. TENSES 6. Future Continuous TenseBy 7.30 tomorrow, I will be flying to Cairo.They will be waiting for you at 5 oclock .
  84. 84. TENSES 7. Present Perfect Tense (What has happened?) Past participle has / have + past participle I since for just yet ever neverrecently already
  85. 85. TENSES 7. Present Perfect Tense I have lived in Riyadh for six years. I have not visited him since 1995.Ahmed has already finished his homework. She has written three letters just now.
  86. 86. TENSES Since & ForSince means “from some definite point or period n the past up to • now” For means “a definite period of time” • since for 2 o’clock a moment Monday 3 minutes yesterday an hour last night many hours last week/ last month/ last year 3 days/ 5 weeks / 4 months 1996 a year last century 10 years he came………… a century
  87. 87. TENSES8. Past Perfect Tense (What had happened?) Past participle had +past participle I after before when as soon as
  88. 88. TENSES 8. Past Perfect TenseI had washed before I prayed.They went home after they had finished their work.Ahmed had done his homework before he went to school.As soon as they had bought a car, they drove to Makkah.
  89. 89. TENSES 9. Future Perfect Tense (What will have happened by…?) Past paticiplewill + have past participle I by at
  90. 90. TENSES 9. Future Perfect TenseBy 2.00 this afternoon, I will have finished my work.At 10.00 tonight, she will have written five letters.
  91. 91. TENSES. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (What has been happening?) has / have + been + ing I for since
  92. 92. TENSES . Present Perfect Continuous TenseI have been studying English for six years. (I am still studying English)She has been sleeping since 2 o’clock. (She is still sleeping)
  93. 93. TENSES . Present Perfect Continuous Tense Present Perfect Cont. Present PerfectMaha started making cakes three hours ago. There arenow one hundred cakes on the table. Present Perfect Continuous TenseShe has been making cakes for three hours. Present Perfect TenseShe has made 100 cakes..
  94. 94. ImperativesImperatives are verbs used at the beginningof sentences either in the affirmative or negative to indicate instructions, invitations, signs and notices or telling someone what to do. The Imperatives uses the simple form of the • verb such as: walk, read, open,….etc.
  95. 95. Imperatives Give InstructionsMix the flour and the sugar. (Affirmative)Take two tablets every four hours. (Affirmative) Make InvitationsCome in; make yourselves at home. (Affirmative) Please start; do not wait (Negative) f or me. Tell someone what to do open your book. (Affirmative) (Negative) Do not forget to post the letter.
  96. 96. Imperatives Give Warnings (Affirmative) Keep out! Danger.Make Signs & Notices (Affirmative) Push. (Affirmative) Insert 2 X 50 SR. (Affirmative) Keep off the grass.. Make Requests Please open the door (Affirmative)
  97. 97. ModalsA modal has only one form of the verb for all persons, but it can have several meanings and time frames, depending on the context in which it is used. Form shall, should, will would, may, might, can, could, must, ought to + Modals have no infinitives or past participles.
  98. 98. ModalsModals Expresses: Example Promiseshall You shall take a reward. Determination He does not want to obey me: but he shall. Threat You shall be punished if you come late. Dutyshould You should obey your teachers. Advice or opinion You should stop smoking. will The simple future tense. He will visit us tomorrow. Determination or promise I will travel when I like. We will do as you wish.
  99. 99. Modals Modals Expresses: Example might Possibility I hoped that I might succeed. I thought that the weather might changecan, am/is/are Ability He can do it carefully. able to He is able to solve the problem.shall be able, Ability in the future I shall be able to help you. will be able could Past, present or Fahad could drive his car a year ago. future possibility Ali is not in class today. He could be sick. Do not leave now. It could rain now. must Necessity You must listen to your teachers. had to The past form of Faisal could not come to our dinner must: past party. He had to stay home to study. necessity
  100. 100. Modals Modals Expresses: Exampleought to + Advice You ought to help the poor. infinitive ought to Actions that You ought to have studied.have + past were advisable (You did not. That was a participle in the past mistake)
  101. 101. ModalsAffirmative Negative Question Short Answers Affirmative NegativeThey should They should Should they eat Yes, they No, they eat now. not eat now. now? should. should not.He will leave. He will not Will he leave? Yes, he No, he will leave. will. not. He would He would not Would he leave? Yes, he No, he succeed. succeed. would. would not. I might I might not Might I succeed? succeed. succeed.I may sleep. I may not May I sleep? sleep.
  102. 102. Modals Affirmative Negative Question Short Answers Affirmative Negative I can do it. I cannot do Can I do it? Yes, you can. No, you can it. not. He could talk. He could not Could he Yes, he could. No, he could talk. talk? not.We could have a We could Could we Yes, you No, he couldtest tomorrow. not have a have a test could. not. test tomorrow? tomorrow.You must go now. You must Must you go Yes, I must. No, I must not go now. now? not.You ought to help You ought Ought you Yes, I ought No, I ought them. not to help to help to. not. them. them?
  103. 103. Comparing Adjectives1. Comparing Short Adjectivesthan er Ali is older than Ahmed. • My Car is faster than yours. • r e safer than safe • simpler than simple • er i y y easier than easy • heavier than heavy •
  104. 104. Comparing Adjectives1. Comparing Short Adjectives est the Everest is the highest mountain. • This is the biggest building in Riyadh. • e e the safest safe • est i y y the easiest easy •
  105. 105. Comparing Adjectives2. Comparing Long Adjectives beautiful difficult dangerous correct important fluent est er than more Jeddah is more beautiful than Riyadh. French is more difficult than English.
  106. 106. Comparing Adjectives2. Comparing Long Adjectives the most Amal is the most beautiful girl in her class. This is the most important subject in this book.
  107. 107. Comparing Adjectives2. Comparing Long Adjectives good better than the best bad worse than the worst many more than the most much little less than the least far farther than the farthest Adel is better than his brother at school. This girl is the worst one in her class.
  108. 108. as……..as not as….as as……..as Ali is as tall as his brother. This bag is as big as my bag. not as……..as Ali is not as tall as his brother.This bag is not as big as my bag.
  109. 109. AdverbsAn Adverb always modifies a verb. Most adverbs are formed by adding ly to the adjectives. lynice nicely slow slowly happy happily careful carefully
  110. 110. Adverbs There are many kinds of adverbs: Adverbs of manner: express how an action was done. I closed the window carefully. The soldier fought bravely.Adverbs of time express the time when an action is or was done. I’m going to leave for Cairo tomorrow. What’s going to happen next?
  111. 111. Adverbs Adverbs of place: express when an action is done. I shall stand here. I’ve looked everywhere for my lost pen.Some words that end in ly can be both adjectives or adverbs. Most of them refer to time. ly daily weekly monthly yearly A daily newspaper is published daily. We get up early to catch an early train.
  112. 112. AdverbsAdverbs of frequency tell how often we do something always often usually sometimes seldom rarely never occasionally Verb to BE: Ali is always on time.Other Verbs: Ali sometimes reads a book.
  113. 113. Adverbial Clause of Time Conjunctions when, whenever, as, as soon as, while, after, before, until, sinceThese words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of time with the main sentence. I found a watch. I was walking in the street.I found a watch while I was walking in the street.
  114. 114. Adverbial Clause of Place Conjunctions: where, whereverThese words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of place with the main sentence. Wherever he goes his brother follows him.
  115. 115. Adverbial Clause of Cause Conjunctions: because, since, asThese words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause • of cause with the main sentence. I stayed at home yesterday because it was raining.
  116. 116. Adverbial Clause of Manner Conjunctions: As, as if, as thoughThese words (conjunctions) link the adverbial • clause of manner with the main sentence. as if He speaks as if he were a king. was were It looks as if it would rain. will would
  117. 117. Adverbial Clause of Purpose Conjunctions: that, so that, in order that These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of purpose with the main sentence.a) We use (may + infinitive) when the main verb is in the present or future. He works hard. He wishes to succeed. He works hard so that (that or in order that) he may succeed. b) We use (might + infinitive) when the main verb is in the simple past. He was walking quickly in order that he might not be late.
  118. 118. Adverbial Clause of ResultWe use: to link the main sentence with the adverbial clause of result. so adjective or adverb + that such + noun that The man is so weak that he cannot walk. The student walked so slowly that he reached school late. He wrote such good answers that he got he marks.It was such a good performance that everybody applauded.
  119. 119. Adverbial Clause of Contrast Conjunctions: though, althoughThese words (conjunctions) link the adverbialclause of contrast with the main sentence. He is poor. He is happy.Although (though) he is poor, he is happy.
  120. 120. Adverbial Clause of Contrast Conjunctions: as….as, so……asThese words (conjunctions) link the adverbial • clause of contrast with the main sentence. Nabeel is as clever as his father. • Sami is not so strong as his brother. •
  121. 121. Adverbial Clause of Condition Conjunctions: if, unless (if not) These words (conjunctions) link the adverbial clause of condition with the main sentence.If we are ill, we go to bed. (conditional if type 1)If we work hard, we will succeed. (conditional if type 1)If we worked hard, we would succeed. (conditional if type 2)If he had fallen, he would have hurt himself. (conditional if type 3)Unless the rain falls, the crops will not grow. (conditional if type 1)
  122. 122. as……..as not as….as as……..as Ahmed drives as dangerously as his brother. not as……..asHamad does not drive as dangerously as his brother.
  123. 123. Active & PassiveStatements Questions Command
  124. 124. Active & Passive A. Statements Ahmed broke the window yesterday. Ahmed Active The window was broken yesterday.The window was broken (by Ahmed) yesterday. Ahmed Passive by
  125. 125. Active & Passive A. StatementsPassive Active to be (Past participle) by
  126. 126. Active & Passive A. Statements Active Passive Ali writes letters. Letters are written (by Ali). Huda wrote the lesson. The lesson was written (by Huda). Saleh will buy a car. A car will be bought (by Saleh).Khaled is helping Ahmed. Ahmed is being helped (by Ali).She has eaten the apple. The apple has been eaten (by her).
  127. 127. Active & Passive A. Statements to be am, is, are was, were shall be, will be am being, is being, are being was being, were being has been, have been had beencan be, could be, may be, might be, must be, ought to be
  128. 128. Active & Passive B. QuestionsPassive Active to be by
  129. 129. Active & Passive B. Questions Active PassiveDoes Ahmed write letters? Are letters written (by Ali)? Did he eat the cake?. Was the cake eaten (by him)? Will Ali buy a new car? Will a new car be bought (by Ali)? Why is he using a pen? Ahmed is being helped (by Ali). Who broke the window? By whom the window was broken?
  130. 130. Active & Passive C. CommandPassive Active let be to be
  131. 131. Active & Passive C. Command Active Passive Do the work. Let the work be done. Open the door. Let the door be opened.Send this letter to your Let this letter be sent to friend. your friend.
  132. 132. Active & Passive Active Passive Ali does not write letters Letters are not written (by Ali).Dickens wrote those novels, Those novels were written by didn’t he? Dickens, weren’t they?Dickens didn’t write that play, That play wasn’t written by did he? Dickens, was it?
  133. 133. Prepositions A preposition shows the relation between thesubject and the object. There are also prepositions of time and prepositions of place.
  134. 134. Use of PrepositionsPrepositions Use Example on Days On Monday Day + morning, night On Friday morning Afternoon, evening, My birthday is on June date 10. Special days I will travel on the National Day. To mean above The tea is on the table.
  135. 135. Use of PrepositionsPrepositions Use Example in Season The trees grow in spring. Year I was born in 1968. Month The test is in May. The morning I go to work in the morning. The evening I go home in the evening To mean inside He is in the masjid.
  136. 136. Use of PrepositionsPrepositions Use Example at Time I will come back at 2 o’clock. Festival I will meat you at the school festival. Meal times I will talk to my father at lunch. The weekend We will travel at the weekend. Noon We pray at noon everyday. Night We sleep at night. To mean place He is at the grocer’s.
  137. 137. Use of Prepositions Prepositions of PlacePrepositions Use Example at at an exact He lives at number 5, King place Fahad Street. at work Ahmed is at work. at the table They are standing at the dinner table under The cat is under the table.in front of The teacher is in front of the class. to I go to school everyday. direction/place
  138. 138. Use of Prepositions Prepositions of PlacePrepositions Use Example in To mean Put this book in the inside box. In a country I live in Saudi Arabia. In a I live in Al-Madina. town/street in bed The baby is in bed. In a You were in the club building or area last night. In a chair Ali is sitting in his chair.
  139. 139. Use of Prepositions Prepositions of PlacePrepositions Use Example with I write with a pen. from I am from Riyadh. behind The wall is behind the class.between Samah is sitting between Fatma and Salwa. on Ali watches football on TV every TV Saturday. He arrives on time. Time
  140. 140. Use of Prepositions More Examples Prepositions Example in The medicine is in the bottle. on The knife is on the table. at Someone is at the door.near Ahmed is sitting near the window. between The house is between the school and the masjid.opposite The bank is opposite to the post office.into The electrician is putting his hand into the TV. onto The water is spilling onto the floor.
  141. 141. Use of Prepositions More Examples Prepositions Example off The man is falling off the chair. out of The child is falling out of the window. across The carpenter cut across the wood.over/above The light is over (above) the table. The fire is under (below) the stairs. under/below through The ball is going through the window. among The teacher is sitting among the students.
  142. 142. Use of Prepositions More Examples Prepositions Example in The medicine is in the bottle. on The knife is on the table.at Someone is at the door.near Ahmed is sitting near the window.between The house is between the school and the mosque.opposite The bank is opposite to the post office.into The electrician is putting his hand into the TV. onto The water is spilling onto the floor.
  143. 143. Use of Prepositions More Examples Prepositions Example round The car is going round the tree. in front of The child is sitting in front of the TV. behind The headmaster is sitting behind the pupils.on top of The sweets are on top of the table.at the side of The garage is at the side of the house. along The man is walking along the street. next to The bank is next to the baker’s.
  144. 144. Question-Tags
  145. 145. Question-Tags Questions that we expect the answer “Yes”* There’s a supermarket near here, isn’t there? Yes , there is. Yes not * You come from the United States, don’t you? Yes, I do. do
  146. 146. Question-Tags Questions that we expect the answer “No”1) You don’t come from Saudi Arabia, do you? No, I don’t. 2) It doesn’t take long time by car, does it? No, it doesn’t. do/does 3) You didn’t travel last year, did you? No, I didn’t. did
  147. 147. Conditional “if”) if + present will If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home. If you eat too much, you will become fat.
  148. 148. Conditional “if” 2) if + past wouldIf Shakespeare lived today, he would use different English. would if + subject + past subject+ would was were be If I were you, I would buy a new car.
  149. 149. Conditional “if” 3) if + had + would have If he had lived in Taif, he would have been happy.If he had visited Makkah, he would have seen the Ka’aba.
  150. 150. Conditional “if” 0) if + present present If you boil water, it becomes steam. becomes 0) if + present instructionsIf the radio is too loud, turn it off. Or Turn the radio off if it is too loud. If you are under 17, don’t drive a car. Or Don’t drive a car if you are under 17.
  151. 151. Reported Speech Indirect SpeechThere are four kinds of direct and Indirect Speech. 1) Statement 2) Question 3) Command 4) Exclamation
  152. 152. Reported Speech Statement Direct Indirect “I live in Riyadh” He said that he lived in Riyadh. “We are happy” They said that they were happy. She said: "I have not been in the She said that she had not been to school library recently”. the school library recently. He said to me: "I shall see you He told me that he would see me tomorrow”. the next day. They said to him: “We shall see you They told him that they would see tomorrow. We shall visit Ahmed”. him the next day and added that and added that they would visit Ahmed. say, says She says: “I will cook the food She says that she will cook the tomorrow”. food tomorrow.We say: “We are playing football now”. We say that we are playing football now.
  153. 153. Reported Speech QuestionReported Direct asked - Present Past Past Past Perfect - - -
  154. 154. Reported Speech Question Direct Indirect “What is your name?” He asked me what my name was. “Why are you late?” The teacher asked me why I was late. “Where is your book?” He asked me where my book was. if if“ Is your school very large?” He asked me if my school was very large.. do does “ Where do you live?” He asked me where I lived. “Does he go to school?” I asked him if he went to school.
  155. 155. Reported Speech Question Direct Indirect did had past participle“Where did you go yesterday?” Sami asked me where I had gone the day before. “Did Ahmed buy a new car?” Ali asked me if Ahmed had bought a new car. ask, asks“Who is your English teacher?” They ask me who my English teacher is. “What are your marks?” He asks me what my marks are.
  156. 156. Reported Speech CommandReported Direct ordered - begged I advised told to - Please, do - -
  157. 157. Reported Speech Command Direct IndirectHe said to the servant: “bring me He ordered the servant to a glass of water”. bring him a glass of water.The son said to his father: “please The son begged his father to give me some money”. give him some money.The doctor said to me: “Drink a lot The doctor advised me to of water”. drink a lot of water. He said to me: “Do not go to the He told me not to go to the market tonight”. market that night.
  158. 158. Reported Speech Exclamation Reported Direct -1 with regret with anger with joy with admiration with sadness that -2 -3how, what Alas, Hurrah, Oh
  159. 159. Reported Speech Exclamation Direct IndirectHe said : “Alas! I will not find He said with sorrow that he my money”. would not find his money.He said : “How foolish I have He said with regret that he been”. had been foolish.
  160. 160. Countries and Nationalities i, n, ian, ish, ese Country Nationality Country NationalitySaudi Arabia Saudi Britain British Turkey Turkish Oman Omani China Chinese Algeria Algerian Lebanon Lebanese Libya Libyan France French Palestine Palestinian Switzerland Swiss Syria Syrian
  161. 161. ENGLISH GRAMMARPrepared by: Mulla (2002) Reference: “Grammar For All Levels” by Adnan Naim Edited by: Dr Saif H. Al-Ansari 

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