GENERATIVE GRAMMAR• The rules determining the structure and interpretation of sentences that speakers accept as belonging to the language.THEORY OF COMPETENCE• A model of psychological system of unconscious knowledge that underlies a speaker’s ability to produce and interpret utterances in a language
Noam Chomsky Avram Noam Chomsky was born on the 7th of December 1928, in Philadelphia. His father was a Hebrew grammarian and his mother a teacher. Chomsky got his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied linguistics under Zellig Harris. He took a position in machine translation and language teaching at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Eventually his ideas about the structure of language transformed the field of linguistics. Reviled by some and admired by others, Chomsky’s ideas have laid the groundwork for the discipline of linguistics, and have been very influential in computer science, and philosophy. Chomsky is also one of the leading intellectuals in the anarchist socialist movement. His political writings about the media and political injustice have profoundly influenced many. Chomsky is among the most quoted authors in the world (among the top ten and the only living person on the list).
Underlying thesis ofgenerative grammar is that sentences are generated by a subconscious set of procedures (like computer programs).
Generative grammar claims to be a theory of cognitive psychology, It is a model of the psychology of Language. descriptive rules describe how peopleprescriptive actually speak, whetherrules or not they are speaking “correctly.” “use whom not who,”
Judgments as Science?Many linguists refer to the grammaticality judgment task as“drawing upon our native speaker intuitions.”Generative grammarian refers to “intuition” however, she isusing the term to mean “tapping into our subconsciousknowledge.”
When generative grammar was first proposed, it was widely hailed as a way of formalizing the implicit set of rules a person "knows" when they know their native language and produce grammatical utterances in it (grammaticality intuitions). However Chomsky has repeatedly rejected that interpretation; according to him, the grammar of a language is a statement of what it is that a person has to know in order to recognize an utterance as grammatical, but not a hypothesis about the processes involved in either understanding or producing language.
Kinds of Grammaticality Judgmentsa) #The toothbrush is pregnant.b) *Toothbrush the is blue.
Sentence (11a) sounds bizarre (cf. the toothbrush is blue) becausewe knowthat toothbrushes (except in the world of fantasy/science fictionor poetry)cannot be pregnant. The meaning of the sentence is strange, butthe form isOK. We call this semantic ill-formedness and mark the sentencewith a #. Bycontrast, we can glean the meaning of sentence (11b); it seemssemanticallyreasonable (toothbrushes can be blue), but it is ill-formed from astructuralpoint of view. That is, the determiner the is in the wrong placein the sentence. This is a syntactically ill-formed sentence. Anative speakerof English will judge both these sentences as ill-formed, but forvery differentreasons. In this text, we will be concerned primarily with syntacticwell-formedness.
The theory of WHERE DO THEgenerative RULES COMEgrammar FROM? Learning vs. Acquisition Innateness: Language as an Instinct The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition
• Learning vs. Acquisition • Cognitive scientists make a distinction in how we get conscious • and subconscious knowledge.• Subconscious knowledge, like how to speak• or the ability to visually identify discrete objects, is acquired. In part,• this explains why classes in the formal grammar of a foreign language• often fail abysmally to train people to speak those languages• Conscious knowledge (like the rules• of algebra, syntactic theory, principles of organic chemistry, or how to take• apart a carburetor) is learned.
the most controversial claim of Noam Chomsky’s is that language is also an instinct. Many parts of Language are built in, or innate. a human facility for Language (perhaps in the formof a “Language organ” in the brain) is innate. We call this facility UniversalGrammar (or UG).
The argument presented here is based on an unpublished paper by Alec Marantz,but is based on an argument dating back to at least Chomsky (1965). Premise (i): Syntax is a productive, recursive and infinite system Premise (ii): Rule governed infinite systems are unlearnable. Conclusion: Therefore syntax is an unlearnable system. Since we have it,it follows that at least parts of syntax are innate.
PREMISE (I): SYNTAX IS A PRODUCTIVE, PREMISE (II): RULE GOVERNED INFINITERECURSIVE AND INFINITE SYSTEM SYSTEMS ARE UNLEARNABLE. Language is a productive system. premise (ii): The idea that infinite That is, you can produce and systems are unlearnable. In order understand sentences you have to make this more concrete, let’s consider an algebraic treatment of never heard before. a linguistic example. Imagine that The magic of syntax is that it can the task of a child is to determine generate forms that have never the rules by which her language is been produced before. Another constructed. Further, let’s simplify example of the productive quality the task, and say a child simply has lies what is called recursion. to match up situations It is always possible to embed a in the real world with utterances she hears.4 So upon hearing the sentence inside of a larger one. utterance the cat spots the kissing This means that Language is a fishes, she identifies it with an productive (probably infinite) appropriate situation in the context system. around her .
A. Standard Theory (1957-1965)B. Extended Standard Theory (1965-1973)C. Revised Extended Standard Theory (1973- 1976)D. Relational grammar (ca. 1975-1990)E. Government and binding/Principles and parameters theory (1981-1990)F. Minimalist Program (1990-present)
Major criticism of the Standard Theory came from within generative grammar itself. Some of the Chomsky’s students felt that the scope of grammar was too narrow and should be extended into other areas of language, particularly into semantics.
The major change inthe Extended Standard Theory wasthat semantic interpretation couldnotbe based on the deep structurealone,but that it is determined by the deepstructure as well as by the surfacestructure.However, the deep structurekeeps its important syntactic role.
Revised Extended Standard Theory (1973-1976) Revised Extended Standard Theory Is a strict delimitation of the different grammatical components, that is syntax, semantics, as well as phonology, stylistics and pragmatics.
Relational grammar (ca. 1975-1990) An alternative model of syntax based on the idea that notions like Subject, Direct Object, and Indirect Object play a primary role in grammar.
Government and binding/Principles and parameters theory (1981-1990)It is based on theprinciplesand parameters theory, It is the aim of GB-theorywhich statesthat there is a finite set of to find thefundamental principles and parametersprinciples common to all commonnatural languagesand a finite set of binary to all languages so that theparameters that syntax of adetermine the range particular language can beof permissible variabilityin language, explainedlanguage acquisition and along these lines.languageunderstanding.
Binding theory poses locality conditions on certain processes and related items. The central notion of government theory is the relation between the head of a construction and categories dependent on it. It is also concerned with relations of anaphors, pronouns, names and variables to possible antecedents.
an approach to the study of the human language faculty chiefly associated with Noam Chomsky.Minimalist Program (1990-present)
In The Minimalist Program (1995),the latest step in the continuousdevelopment of transformational generativegrammar, Chomsky provideda radically new approach to theimplementation of his underlyingideas. The well-established conceptsof D-structure and S-structure havebeen discarded as well as government,the central element in GB-theory. Eventhe ubiquitous phrase-structure ruleshave been eliminated from the theoryto a large degree
The only conceptuallynecessary categories left arethelexicon and the two levels ofphoneticform and logical form* and it istherole of a grammar to map themontoeach other.
Is a formal system that describes a language by specifying how any legal text can be derived from a distinguished symbol called the axiom, or sentence symbol. It consists of a set of productions, each of which states that a given symbol can be replaced by a given sequence of symbols.
Generative grammar has been used to a limited extent in music theory and analysis since the 1980s. The most well-known approaches were developed by Mark Steedman as well as Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff, who formalised and extended ideas from Schenkerian analysis. More recently, such early generative approaches to music were further developed and extended by several scholars