You understand what Reading Assistant can offer your students You’re prepared to enroll your students You understand potential microphone pitfalls You are ready for your students to start using Reading Assistant You understand how to support their use You realize that Progress Tracker and Customer Connect are tools you can turn to for additional information and support
Teachers just struggle to deliver this experience with each student in their class each day – it’s not a scalable model and it’s a place where technology can support instruction.
Let’s talk about fluency and why it is so important.
Fluency leads to Comprehension and Comprehension actually helps improve fluency…. Fluency and Comprehension are like peanut butter and jelly – they just GO together!
Fluency is predictive in nature. Not only is fluency good in theory, it has an impact on student performance on high stakes test. Look at this example from Florida. From research we know that there is a high correlation between fluency and comprehension, from 85 to over 90% in some studies. Now there is evidence that fluency is a key missing skill in underperforming students at all grades. This deficiency is the cause of poor performance on state tests: “ The major problem that appears to prevent students from passing the FCAT in third grade is the inability to read text accurately and fluently.” A quote from Joe Torgesen from the FCRR. From this graph we see that this deficiency is not overcome by 7 th grade, with level 1 and 2 readers still highly very poor in fluency and in FCAT scores. That represents over 78% of students!
Beth Israel & Harvard research – Many areas of the brain are important for reading – fluency is about getting those areas working together well. Dysfluent brains are organized like back country roads where fluent brains have superhighways for connections to and from these areas. Reading Assistant provides frequent and intense oral readings which help to build automaticity in the brain.
It’s important that teachers’ expectations be set properly when they are introduced to the program. Reading Assistant is not a phonemic program – we will not stop a child if they say “wabbit’ for “rabbit”, if they leave off an “ed” ending, or they slightly mis pronounce. The idea is to assess each reading error, and only stop the student if the error they are making impedes comprehension. Just as a teacher would, we take not of words we have “concerns’ with – those are the blue review words – so that the student and teacher knows this word is not “automatic” and should be reviewed. Students should understand that re-reading is what will build their fluency best. We do not want students reading a passage just once and then moving on to a new passage. Re-visiting text, reviewing unfamiliar words multiple times will help with fluency development. Students should expect that they will need to re-read a passage several times – and note that mastery of the text is the goal. Fluency focus The software models the best classroom practices of a supportive listener. It wants to stop the reader as infrequently as possible while still ensuring the/she doesn’t miss words that impede comprehension. It does not demand exactness; if an “s” or “ed” is left off, the software will allow the student to continue. The software errors on the side on non-intervention, but it will flag words not fluently recognized and mark them for review. The software is particularly lenient with glue words; (the, and, at, it). Basic decoding skills necessary This is not an appropriate tool for students who can not decode. The frustration of continual intervention will impede fluency growth. Designed to support and respond to common reading errors of students During training, teachers understandably test the program’s ability to detect and support reading errors. Many of the errors made in training sessions are not representative of a typical student error. The best way to evaluate and the program’s capabilities is to have a student use it.
Consultant customized training
Goals <ul><li>You Will Understand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading Assistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading Content & Assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microphone Headsets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol/Student Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enrollment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to go for Support and Data </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>READ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With a helper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatedly </li></ul></ul>The NRP’s Fluency Recommendation Guided Oral Reading has been shown in the research to develop reading fluency National Reading Panel 2000 National Reading Panel REPORT OF THE TEACHING CHILDREN TO READ An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and its Implications for Reading Instruction
Fluency is Measured in WCPM but… Fluency is NOT just about SPEED!
Reading Fluency <ul><li>Fluency is the ability to read with sufficient ease and accuracy that the reader can focus attention on the meaning and message of text. </li></ul><ul><li>Building automaticity for larger and larger chunks of text </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jay Samuels, Reading Fluency: Its Development and Assessment, 2002 IRA What Research has to say about Reading Instruction, p.166 </li></ul></ul></ul>
Fluency and Comprehension are closely and causally linked <ul><li>Research over many years has affirmed the high degree of correlation between fluency and comprehension – over 85% </li></ul>
<ul><li>Klauda and Guthrie: “…There is evidence that fluency is both a contributor to and a product of comprehension” </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Educational Psychology 2008, Vol. 100, No.2, 310-321 </li></ul>Word Recognition Fluency Comprehension
Fluency & Exams 7 th Grade Skill/ability FCAT Performance Level 1 2 3 4 5 % Students at Level 28 21 29 17 6 WPM on FCAT 88 113 122 144 156 Fluency Percentile 7th 25th 45th 82nd 95th Phonemic Decoding 27th 53rd 63rd 74th 84th Verbal knowledge/reas. 34th 45th 64th 88th 93rd 1 Schatschneider, Buck, Torgesen, Wagner, Hassler, Hecht and Powell-Smith, A Multivariate Study of Individual Differences in Performance on the Reading Portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test: A Brief Report , Florida Center for Reading Research, 2004. Page 6
Fluency and the Brain Multiple oral readings with help build automaticity Disorganized neural pathways linked to dysfluency
Color Challenge <ul><li>BLUE GREEN PINK BLACK YELLOW ORANGE RED GREEN BLACK BLUE BLACK ORANGE RED GREEN BLUE RED GREEN YELLOW PINK ORANGE BLACK BLUE BLACK YELLOW </li></ul>
<ul><li>BLUE GREEN PINK BLACK YELLOW ORANGE RED GREEN BLACK BLUE BLACK ORANGE RED GREEN BLUE RED GREEN YELLOW PINK ORANGE BLACK BLUE BLACK YELLOW </li></ul>
Cunningham & Stanovich. (1998) What reading does for the mind. American Educator , Spring/Summer, pp. 8-15. From Anderson,Wilson,& Fileding (1988). Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside of school .RRQ,23 ,285-303. Marilyn Jager Adams
GET THEM TO READ MORE!!! … But wait…HOW and WHAT???
Reading Content <ul><ul><li>Covering topics related to the content standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanning a range of readability levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Including many genres: Authentic literature, jokes, predictable fiction, animal fiction, narrative fiction, historical fiction, folktales, speeches, biography, expository non- fiction, poetry and narrative non-fiction </li></ul></ul>K-3 43 passages 4-5 134 passages 6-8 152 passages 9-12 141 passages
Variety of Genre Allows for Rich Exposure to Text
National Reading Panel on Vocabulary <ul><li>Vocabulary should be taught both directly and indirectly </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition and seeing vocabulary words several times is also important. Learning in rich contexts , incidental learning, and the use of computer technology all help children develop larger vocabularies. </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of methods, rather than a single teaching method, leads to the best learning. </li></ul>
National Reading Panel on Comprehension <ul><li>… reading comprehension is a complex cognitive process that cannot be understood without a clear description of the role that vocabulary development and vocabulary instruction play in the understanding of what has been read. </li></ul><ul><li>… comprehension is an active process that requires an intentional and thoughtful interaction between the reader and the text … </li></ul><ul><li>… the preparation of teachers to better equip students to develop and apply reading comprehension strategies to enhance understanding is intimately linked to students' achievement in this area…. </li></ul>
Examples <ul><li> RIGHT: </li></ul><ul><li>To the side of the mouth </li></ul>WRONG: In front of the mouth
More Examples <ul><li>RIGHT: </li></ul><ul><li>Students with breathy/lispy voices may need mic moved further to the side </li></ul>WRONG: Mic boom should not be straight and/or away from face
Still More Examples <ul><li>RIGHT: </li></ul><ul><li>Move mic up rather than down in response to breath noise problems </li></ul>TOO FAR! Mic not recommended for use as an eye patch
Helpful Strategies <ul><li>CHECKING: </li></ul><ul><li>Have students put their hands up to their mouths as shown; mic should be just outside </li></ul>STORAGE: Store with mic boom bent: makes adjustment for next user easier, reduces wear & tear BENDING: Grasp as shown to bend – pull with middle, brace with outside fingers
Software Expectations <ul><li>Fluency focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT a phonemic program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It responds as a supportive listener would </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words are “Scored” differently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Implementations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom Fluency Center – Literacy Block </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab Setting </li></ul></ul>
Hands-On <ul><li>Preview & Read Silently – answer all of the guided reading questions, then you can move on </li></ul><ul><li>Record My Reading – you must record at least twice (and a third time if you don’t meet the fluency goal) </li></ul><ul><li>Take the Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Move to the next selection </li></ul>
Expected gain based on per-grade average of national norms collected by Hasbrouck & Tindal (1992) and Edformation (www.edformation.com). 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Fluency Gain (wcpm) (n = 182) (n = 228) Average 23% increase in fluency gain over control group Research Validation Expected Gain Control Reading Assistant Average 43% increase in fluency gain over national norms