This Fluency presentation for October Regional Meetings is designed as a tool to be used in the schools, by the reading specialists. Most slides have notes attached to guide the presenter. This presentation highlights the most effective, research-based instructional practices for developing automaticity and fluency. A description of both instructional and practice/center activities and examples are included. The presentation ends with a slide that delineates the assignment for our next regional meeting: reading specialists will be asked to share their plan for fluency instruction; successes and challenges for either a k/1 or 2 nd /3 rd grade level class and specific instruction and practice activities, used. Big ideas include: distinguishing between automaticity and fluency; distinguishing between explicit instruction and practice/center activities; and identifying most effective, research-based practices. At our last regional meeting, we will apply these big ideas in order to review and evaluate fluency instruction in our CORE programs.
This slide portrays the complexity of reading and the numerous components that must be woven together, simultaneously by the proficient reader. With regard to language skills, the reader must become increasingly strategic in applying his/her background knowledge, knowledge of word meanings (vocabulary), knowledge of language structures, verbal reasoning. Likewise, the reader’s phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding and encoding and sight word recognition must be increasingly instantaneous and automatic. The skilled reader is one who is able to weave or coordinate these underlying processes with automaticity which then results in fluency and comprehension. .
Readers who are “fussing with words” are likely finding it necessary to attend closely to the mechanics of decoding. In addition, they may be reading in a word by word manner because they recognize few words, immediately. Instruction focused on building automatic word recognition and decoding skills is necessary. Torgesen’s recent research as shown a strong relationship between fluency and comprehension. Phrasing, intonation and expression is another important aspect of fluency and can be taught and practiced.
This slide lists steps for creating a plan for assessment, instruction, practice and monitoring of each child’s fluency. Next slides refer to DIBELS progress monitoring. * Note that participants will be asked to share their plans at the next regional meeting. Specifically, they will be asked to share instruction and practice activities used with either kindergarten/first grade students or second/third graders and successes and challenges.
Once we identify students needing additional instructional support, we need to evaluate how he/she is responding to the instruction on a regular, timely basis. By progress monitoring, we can make our instruction more effective and responsive. Progress monitoring assessment should be closely aligned with instruction.
It is important to assess fluency because of fluency’s relationship to comprehension. Assessment informs instruction, predicts student performance on high stake tests (e.g. third graders achieving benchmark on ORF score in proficient range MCAS). Benchmarks for words read correct per minute are consistent.
Highlight popular but less effective practices which include: Choral reading, round robin reading and readers’ theatre. These practices might be used outside of 90 minute instructional time, but should not be used during instructional time.
Distinguish between instructional activities and practice activities emphasizing that automaticity and fluency must by explicitly taught not simply practiced. Explicit instruction is teacher directed.
Read slide emphasizing systematic, explicit instruction. Some may require specialized, intervention program. These children should be progress monitored and their instruction should be adjusted, I.e. intensity increased if they are not making adequate growth.
Read, review with participants.
Here are some examples of instructional activities for developing automaticity at letter, sound letter-sound levels.The instructional activities listed on this slide and successive slides are those cited in research as most effective.
Instructional activities at word level. Six Syllable types can be critical for helping students with multisyllabic words. As students’ automatic recognition of different syllable types increases they will more readily recognize these patterns in lengthy words they encounter when they are reading. Multisensory techniques can be powerful in helping students learn high frequency words with irregular patterns.
Instructional activities for fluency building in connected text. These three techniques have proven to be the most effective instructional practices as reported in National Reading Panel report (2000). These three techniques should be used in small, needs-based instruction instead of less effective, but popular practices which may be suggested by core program and other resources.
Directions for alternate oral reading, sometimes referred to as “my turn, your turn.”
Directions for simultaneous oral reading, sometimes referred to as the “Neurological impress” method.
Directions for repeated readings. Text should not be reread more than four times because research as shown no improvement beyond four readings.
Charting of WCPM is a powerful tool and provides a record of progress ( increase in accuracy, rate, fluency) over weeks and months. Published programs such as Great Leaps, Read Naturally include charts. Core programs include fluency charts and other record keeping components.
Directions for phrase-cued reading. This is often done by teacher using overhead, student follows model at overhead…
Fostering Fluency Why Fluency is Important
Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice. The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING LITERACY KNOWLEDGE PHON. AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION WORD RECOGNITION increasingly automatic increasingly strategic Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processes
Fluency and Comprehension <ul><li>Fluent reading allows the reader to attend to the meaning of the text rather than the mechanics of decoding. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluent readers construct meaning as they read as evidenced by their phrasing, intonation and expression. </li></ul>
Creating a plan for fluency instruction and practice <ul><li>Assess students </li></ul><ul><li>Identify children at risk </li></ul><ul><li>Identify specific needs and group children for instruction (i.e. accuracy, automaticity at word level, or rate fluency in connected text) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide explicit instruction in automaticity and fluency as well as opportunities for practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor progress </li></ul>
Progress Monitoring Assessment <ul><li>Purpose : Frequent, timely measures to determine whether students are learning enough of critical skills. </li></ul><ul><li>When : At minimum 3 times per year at critical decision making points. </li></ul><ul><li>Who : Students identified as at risk, some risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Relation to Instruction : Indicates students who require additional assessment, more intensive instruction and/or intervention . </li></ul>
Why assess fluency? <ul><li>Oral reading fluency measures are valid: have been found to predict results on high stakes reading comprehension tests </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarks for satisfactory reading rates are the same regardless of reading program </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarks help teachers identify who is at risk for for below grade level performance </li></ul>
Most effective/less effective practices <ul><li>Most effective practices include: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate and Simultaneous reading </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated readings </li></ul><ul><li>Minute trials and Charting </li></ul><ul><li>Less effective practices include: </li></ul><ul><li>Choral reading </li></ul><ul><li>Round robin reading </li></ul><ul><li>Readers’ theatre </li></ul><ul><li>National Reading Panel 2000 </li></ul>
Instruction versus Practice <ul><li>Instruction is: explicit and teacher directed and is provided in one to one or small groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice is: child directed conducted with a partner or partners at learning centers/stations in school or at home. </li></ul>
Fluency instruction for the struggling reader <ul><li>Struggling readers need more structured, systematic, explicit emphasis on building both accuracy and fluency. (LETRS, Sopris West) </li></ul>
General principles for instruction <ul><li>Text used for fluency instruction and practice should be carefully chosen by teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent, brief practice on successive days. </li></ul><ul><li>Charting of accuracy and rate is highly motivating and provides record of progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension checks may be part of fluency lessons. </li></ul>
Instruction to develop automaticity of letters and sounds <ul><li>Letter recognition, naming tasks (Alphabet Arc activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Letter-sound correspondence (Sound card games and drills) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological awareness tasks (Rhyming) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic blending and segmentation tasks (Elkonin box activities, finger tapping) </li></ul>
Instruction to improve automaticity at the word level <ul><li>Onset-rimes (word sorts, drills) </li></ul><ul><li>Syllables (Six syllable type review and drills) </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular, sight words (sand writing, drills) </li></ul><ul><li>Regular sight words (review phonic pattern, orthographic rule, word card games, drills) </li></ul>
Instruction to improve Fluency in connected text <ul><li>Research has shown the following techniques to be most effective: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate or simultaneous oral reading with a model </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated readings </li></ul><ul><li>Timed trials with Charting </li></ul>
Alternate Oral Reading <ul><li>Teacher reads section of passage while child follows along, reading silently and pointing to words as they are read. </li></ul><ul><li>Child reads same section or next section of text. </li></ul>
Repeated readings <ul><li>Text is read, then reread two to four times on successive days. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher must insure that text used can be read with at least 95% accuracy by child. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher and student can graph wcpm. </li></ul>
Charting with one minute timed trials <ul><li>WCPM are counted after child reads passage for one minute. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance is charted so that improvement is seen over weeks, months. </li></ul>
Phrase-cued reading <ul><li>Teacher marks text with pencil, scooping phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher models expressive reading using pencil to scoop phrases as phrases are read. </li></ul><ul><li>Student follows model, reads passage while scooping phrases with pencil. </li></ul>