Language And Reading


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Effective strategies for improving reading for "at Risk" students for high stakes assessment

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Language And Reading

  1. 1. Language andReading Skills<br />High School Graduation Test Performance<br />What predicts the success rate?<br />If we need to remediate….<br /> on what should we focus? <br />
  2. 2. Reading and Language<br />Language is the vehicle by which individuals acquire literacy (Boudreau & Hedberg, 1999)<br />Language plays an important role in the development of literacy during adolescent years (Betts, 2009)<br />Academic problems encountered by low achieving students are often language related (Ehren, 2002) Catts, 4 studies from (2002, 2004, 2005, 2006)<br />More and more adolescents are unable to meet the literacy demands of their home and school environments (Hock & Deshler, 2003)<br />
  3. 3. The 21st Century and Literacy<br />Adolescents entering the adult world in the 21st century will read and write more than at any other time in human history. They will need advanced levels of literacy to perform their jobs, run their households, act as citizens, and conduct their personal lives. They will need literacy to cope with the flood of information they will find everywhere they turn. (International Reading Association, 2001)<br />
  4. 4. So how are we doing?<br />5 million (60%) high school students cannot read well enough to understand the information from their textbooks or material at their grade level (Hock & Deshler, 2003)<br />Between 24 and 27 percent of high school students fail to meet state standards in reading nation wide <br /> (US. Department of Education, 2009)<br />NOT SO GREAT …… ?????<br />
  5. 5. So Now What? <br />If you are going to spend the time to remediate …. Ask yourself ….<br />What Skills?<br />What intervention strategy?<br />How long and is there a hierarchy?<br />Does it correlate to the high stakes state tests of NCLB??<br />Which skills give the most bang for our buck??<br />
  6. 6. Research Based Intervention<br />“Language and Reading Skills and Their Relationship to High School Graduation Test Performance” Dawn Betts, 2009<br />“Treating Reading Comprehension Deficits in Children” Lance and Barton, 2009<br />
  7. 7. What Reading Skills?<br />Betts looked at the Ohio Graduation Tests from 2005 to 2007<br />The tests contained the same format/skill bank of questions at the Utah Basic Skills Competency Tests (UBSCT) for reading <br />Failure not due to lack of knowledge or intellect but instead literacy/language skill deficits<br />
  8. 8. Betts Research Questions (1-4)<br />#1Is there a significant relationship between receptive language skills of those who passed and those who did not pass?<br />The population studied were 16.7 to 16.8 years old<br />The receptive language skills for both were within normal limits however the failing group were in the low average range (8.8 points lower)<br />SO … you don’t have to qualify for special education services to be at risk!<br />
  9. 9. Question #1 What receptive skills?<br />Word associations<br />Identification of main idea<br />Use of spatial, passive voice, temporal clauses and embedded clauses, and subordinate conjunctions<br />Inference/prediction<br />
  10. 10. Question #2 Expressive Language Skills<br />#2 Is there a significant difference between the expressive skills of those who passed and those who failed?<br />Same population <br />Both were within normal limits however again the failing group was 7.4 points lower<br />So .. What skills are weak?<br />
  11. 11. Question #2 Weak Expressive Skills<br />Word associations<br />Specific vocabulary knowledge<br />Strong high level syntax; passive voice, embedded clauses, subordinate conjunctions <br />
  12. 12. Question #3 Higher Level Language Skills<br />Is there a significant difference in higher level language skills between the students who passed and those who failed?<br />Same population (16.7 to 16.8)<br />Both were within normal limits <br />The failing group was 14 points lower<br />So …the weak skills are …<br />
  13. 13. Question #3 Weak Higher Language Skills<br />Interpreting sentences with multiple meanings<br />Figurative language<br />Taking another’s perspective<br />4 Levels of Perceptual Language Distance <br />(Blank, M., Rose, S.A. & Berlin, L.J., 1976)<br />1-Matching Perception What is this? What do you see?<br />2- Selective Analysis What is happening? Finish sentence …<br />3-Reorder Perception What will happen next? What would he say?<br />4-Reasoning @ Perception Why should we…? What will happen if?<br />The failing group had not mastered level 3 or 4 <br />
  14. 14. Question #4Silent reading (Group Reading) Skills<br />Is there a significant difference between in silent reading between those students who passed and those who failed?<br />The pass group scaled score was 104.34<br />The fail group scaled score was 88.36<br />To qualify for service scale score is less than or equal to 84<br />And the weak skills are ….<br />
  15. 15. Question #4 Silent Reading Skills<br />3 inter-related domains (Morris & Tchudi, 1996)<br />Basic fundamental skills<br />Word decoding<br />Basic understanding of literal text<br />Critical secondary skills<br />Analyzing<br />Explaining <br />Interpreting<br />Paraphrasing<br />Dynamic application of basic and critical through various contexts<br />Science<br />Literature<br />Mathematics<br />
  16. 16. Implications <br />The weakness in language and reading skills affect the student success on state mandated assessments<br />An inability to use language to critically think about information is likely the reason for poor state mandated assessments<br />Students should be given DIRECT INSTRUCTION for abstract language skills (multiple meanings, idioms, conjunctions, passives, indirect objects)<br />Teach “evaluate” and “infer” and the steps to produce an inference<br />These skills are heavily embedded in the math sections!<br />Ongoing daily silent reading lessons in content texts.<br />
  17. 17. Now What?? Intervention !!Treating Reading Comprehension Deficits<br />Definition of reading comprehension:<br />an active problem solving process in which readers relate the ideas in the text to their own knowledge and experiences which allows the reader to create a mental construct of memory<br /> National Reading Panel, 2000<br />It is dependent on the MASTERY of decoding<br />
  18. 18. Chall’s Stages of Reading<br />Stage 0. Prereading: The learner gains familiarity with the language and its sounds. A person in this stage becomes aware of sound similarities between words, learns to predict the next part in a familiar story, and may start to recognize a few familiar written words. Chall's Stage 0 is considered comparable to what is often called "reading readiness." Typically developing readers achieve this stage about the age of 6.<br />Stage 1. Initial reading stage, or decoding stage: The learner becomes aware of the relationship between sounds and letters and begins applying the knowledge to text. This demonstrates the reader has achieved understanding of the critical concept of the alphabetic principle and is learning sound-symbol correspondences, the alphabetic code.[8] Typically developing readers usually reach this stage by the age of 6 or 7.<br />Stage 2. Confirmation: This stage involves confirming the knowledge acquired in the previous two stages and gaining fluency in those skills. Decoding skills continue to improve, and they begin to develop speed in addition to accuracy in word recognition. At this point, the reader should be able to give attention both to meaning and to the print, using them interactively to build their skills and fluency. This stage is critical for the beginning reader. If the developing reader stops making progress during this stage, the individual remains, in Chall's words, "glued to the print." Typically developing readers usually reach this stage around the age of 8.<br />Stage 3. Reading to learn: At this stage, the motivation for reading changes. The reader has enough reading skill to begin to read text in order to gain information. Readers' vocabulary development accelerates at this point resulting from increased exposure to the written word. Typically developing children usually achieve this stage in 4th grade, around the age of 9.<br />Stage 4. Multiple viewpoints: The reader at this stage begins to be able to analyze what they read, understand different points of view, and react critically to what they read. Typical readers are developing this skill set during the high school years, around ages 14 to 19.<br />Stage 5. Construction and judgment: At this stage, readers have learned to read selectively and form their own opinions about what they read; they construct their knowledge from that of others. This highest level of reading development is not usually reached until college age, or later, and may in fact be achieved only by those who have an intellectual inclination.<br />
  19. 19. Reading Comprehension<br />It is a later developing skill and can be elusive and not obvious when decoding is the focus (grades 1-3)<br />Fourth grade slump <br />Late emerging reading disability<br />40% of all children with low reading skills<br />
  20. 20. Intervention What<br />Oral Language stimulation?<br />Phonemic Awareness Intervention?<br />Can you hear the sounds?<br />Phonological Intervention?<br />Can you match the sound to the symbol?<br />Nice try but research says this is not enough<br />Berninger et al, 2003, Boudreau & Hedberg, 1999, Catts et al, 2006)<br />
  21. 21. Four Methods Four Different Reading Texts<br />Semantic Mapping<br />Three part strategy: (do in small groups)<br /> List <br />Brainstorm words topics (minimal 25)<br />Group and Label new Vocabulary<br /><ul><li>Group by categories
  22. 22. Share and explain category inclusion</li></ul>Follow Up<br /><ul><li>Put in outline
  23. 23. Read text for additional concepts</li></ul>Use: Curriculum Texts <br />
  24. 24. Four MethodsFour Different Reading Texts<br />Contextual Redefinition<br />Teaches how to use context to derive meaning <br />Five steps <br />Novel/critical words are selected from text<br />A sentence using the word is written<br />Words are presented in isolation and all guessed definitions are written on board<br />The target word is read aloud in the context of the sentence<br />The critical words are verified by looking them up in dictionary<br /><ul><li>You can use printed or internet dictionary</li></li></ul><li>Four MethodsFour Different Reading Texts<br />Directed Reading-Teaching Activity<br />For Narrative Text<br />Three Steps <br />Making Predictions<br />Reading and searching for clues<br />Draw Conclusions based on facts or clues<br />
  25. 25. Step 1 Making Predictions <br />Ask Questions<br />What does this title suggest?<br />What does the cover suggest will happen?<br />What do you think will happen?<br /> after reading the table of contents or chapter headings make predictions<br />Do in groups for each section then return to whole group to compare and contrast<br />Put their predictions in notebook<br />Put the supporting “clues” under each prediction<br />
  26. 26. Step 2 & 3Searching for Clues/Draw Conclusions<br />Read the narrative sections in groups<br />Each group looks for different predictor clues (support or nonsupport)<br />Come together and discuss evidence <br />Determine the accuracy of the predictions (Draw Conclusions)<br />Write it all down! Then read it!<br />Homework, read the text individually<br />
  27. 27. K – W – L Method<br />Increases Expository Text Comprehension<br />Pre-reading activity<br />Activates prior knowledge <br />Provides a purpose for the reading activity<br />Three step process<br />K: What I KNOW <br />W: What I Want to Learn<br />L: What I learned<br />Plus adds the use of mapping from L stage<br />
  28. 28. K step What I Know<br />Keeps students on topic<br />Increases Relevancy versus Irrelevancy Awareness<br />Gives teacher a baseline of knowledge base of students<br />Generates categories (associations)<br />
  29. 29. W Step What I Want to learn<br />Helps student develop consciousness about purpose for reading text<br />Develop questions to be answered by the text<br />Teaches students to formulate abstract questions<br />Focuses reading for relevant information and concepts<br />
  30. 30. L step What I Learned<br />Take inventory from the read text<br />Answer the questions formulated in stage 2<br />Note if any questions were left unanswered<br />Make action plan for further investigation to answer unanswered questions<br />This is the basis of research<br />
  31. 31. How do I teach reading in high school?<br />Reading has many skills<br />We use different strategies for different reading formats or texts<br />Students have to have direct instruction in order to succeed in graduation high stakes testing<br />What is effective learning? Because if I have to provide direct instruction, it better be effective. <br />After all they should know all this before they got to me!!!<br />
  32. 32. Four Stages of Learning<br />Stage 1 Acquisition<br />Stage 2 Fluency<br />Stage 3 Maintainence<br />Stage 4 Generalization<br />
  33. 33. Stage 1 Acquisition<br />This is the Learn It stage<br />Accuracy is between 0 and 60%<br />Material should be exposed for 20 minutes twice daily with a break in between<br />Use guided practice “I do it We do it You do”<br />For learning:<br />Basic concepts<br />Vocabulary<br />Formulas and tables<br />Motor Patterns<br />Collect data every time because accuracy counts (who doesn’t like getting an “A” for getting up to 60%?)<br />
  34. 34. Stage 2 Fluency<br />This is the Perfect It Stage<br />Accuracy is between 60% and 85%<br />Material should be practiced for 20 minutes every other day<br />You are learning NOTHING NEW<br />They are getting faster and accurate<br />Collect data every other session<br />
  35. 35. Stage 3 Maintenance<br />This is the Use It Stage<br />Accuracy is between 85% and 90%<br />Material is used in context<br />Material is used in conjunction with newly related concept presented every other week<br />It relates mastered materials to new formats or settings<br />Collect data every 2 to 3 weeks<br />
  36. 36. Stage 4 Generalization<br />This is the Use It Anytime Anywhere Stage<br />Over 95% accuracy rate<br />Material is integrated into new higher level thinking or long term projects<br />Students can teach others<br />Data is collected randomly <br />Successful at reading in new formats for new purposes<br />Able to build a mental construct <br />
  37. 37. Exposure Rates <br />Vocabulary Exposure<br />Typical students require 9 to 11 exposures<br />Struggling students require at least 25 exposures to acquire word recognition<br />Concept Acquisition Rates (Baker 2008)<br />Superior Gifted IQ > 130 4<br />Above Average IQ (115 – 130) 8<br />Average IQ (85 – 115) 16<br />Below Average IQ (70 – 85) 32<br />Deficient Severe IQ < 69 64<br />
  38. 38. How do I teach reading for all these students and stages?<br />Design a Pre assessment<br />List the students according to the results<br />Arrange the students into groups<br />Develop lessons that focus on the stage for that group<br />If you have stage 4 students, have them teach the stage 1 student groups<br />For stages 1 and 2 you have to set up 2 20 minute blocks and instruct using guided practice<br />Design a data tool and have the students collect their results<br />
  39. 39. Grouping Strategies<br />Size your groups according to the stage<br />Effective Learning Critical Size (B. Bloom, 1984)<br />Stage 1 groups should be 1 – 4 students<br />Stage 2 groups should be 1 to 4 students<br />Stage 3 students are using guidance and reading methods that relate to the text format and purpose<br />Stage 4 can peer tutor or be doing independent work completion (silent reading directed activity)<br />
  40. 40. References<br />Bloom, B. “The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Groups Instruction as Effective as One – to –One Tutoring”, Educational Researcher, Vol. 13, No. 6 pp.4-16.<br />Blank, M., Rose, S.A., & Berlin, L.J. The Language of Learning; The Preschool Year 1980<br />Berninger, V.W., et al, Comparison of three Approaches in supplementary reading instruction for low-achieving readers Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in the Schools, 34, pp. 101-116<br />Baker, G.,” Exposure Rate for all Learners” lecture Utah State University 2008<br />Dawn Betts, “language and Reading Skills and Their Relationship to High School Graduation Test Performance” Speech Pathology. Com Literacy Series 2009<br />Boudreau, D.M., $ Hedberg, N.L. A comparison of early literacy skills in children with specific language impairment and their typically developing peers, American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 8, pp 628-631<br />Catts, H. Fey, M., Tomblin, L.J. & Zhang, X. A Longitudinal Investigation of Reading Outcomes in Children with Language Impairment, Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 45, pp. 1142-1157.<br />Catts H., et al Language Deficits in poor comprehenders: A case for the simple view of reading. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49 pp. 278-293<br />Chall, J., Stages of Reading Development New York: McGraw-Hill 1983<br />Ehren, B. Lenz, B., & Deschler, D. “Enhancing literacy proficiency with Adolescents and Young Adults” Handbook of Language and Literacy Development and Disorders, pp. 681-701 2004<br />Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D., & Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R: Research in the classroom. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co.<br />Hock, M. & Deshler, D. “Don’t forget the Adolescents” Principal Leadership, 4 (3) pp. 50-68 2003<br />International Reading Association “Supporting young adolescents’ literacy learning” 2001<br />Snow, C.E., “Reading for Understanding: Toward an R & D program in reading comprehension” 2002<br />Tierney, R.J., Readence, J.E., & Dishner, E.K., Reading strategies and practices Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon 1995<br />Whitmire, K. Language and Literacy in the age of federal initiatives, Topics in Language Disorders, Vol. 28 (4) pp. 322-331)<br />