Oral Reading Fluency Research


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Oral Reading Fluency Research : ED 520: Implementing Solutions for School-wide Effective Reading Instruction. American College of Education, November 2, 2012. To be presented at PEAK Teachers Conference, Kuwait, December 8, 2012.

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  • In order for students to apply sufficient mental energy to their construction of meaning from text, young readers require sufficient exposure to text to move through the stages of accuracy and automaticity to reach the stage of prosody, when they can use phrasing and inflection to support understanding of the printed word. (Hudson, Lane & Pullen 2005; Kuhn & Stahl, 2003; Rasinski, 2005).
  • Between 1937 and 1991, when he died aged 87, Dr.Suess published more than 40 books, which have sold half a billion copies between them - more even than J K Rowling's Harry Potter books.Dr. Seuss has been credited with killing off "Dick and Jane", the sterile heroes of older children's books, replacing them with clever rhymes, plot twists and rebellious heroes who do the unexpected. The Cat in the Hat was commissioned following publication in 1955 of an influential book, Why Johnny Can't Read, which said children were being held back by boring books. An article under the same name in Life magazine called for more imaginative illustration, and named Dr. Seuss as a good example of what could be done. Now one in four American children receive Dr. Seuss as their first book.http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3523393.stm
  • Ruth Hanna McCormick (U. S. congress woman) sitting with a group of children at a table covered with books in a room. 1929. Credit: Chicago Daily News negatives collection, DN-0003451. Courtesy of the Chicago Historical Society.
  • Only the reader appears to gain any benefit while the listeners learn nothing. Studies suggest that much of the time devoted to round-robin (or popcorn) reading is wasted in terms of student learning.
  • Children looking at picture books at school, Santa Clara, Utah. Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA-OWI Collection, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-USF35-1326]. Russell Lee, 1940.
  • English: CAMP SHAHEEN, Afghanistan (Oct. 3, 2010) Lt. Matthew Marcinkiewicz practices reading English with children of soldiers from the Afghan National Army. Marcinkiewicz is deployed to Afghanistan for seven months from Yokosuka Naval Base, Japan, as part of the NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan Medical Embedded Training Team to assist in the development and training of his Afghan counterparts at the 209th Corps Regional Hospital. (U.S. Navy photo by Sandra Arnold/Released)Research on fluency for second language learners is limited, but the research that has been done suggests the following instructional approaches.
  • Progress monitoring that allows students to be involved in setting and achieving goals.
  • Pre-reading activities: Teacher introduces the concept of prosody: good readers read not only automatically, but with expression and phrasing. Reading with prosody helps the reader understand what the writing is about. The best way to get really good at prosody is to read the same story, poem, or text many times. Teacher shares a group poem, reading it with various levels of prosody so children get a sense of the goal. The class rehearses the poem using echo-reading: teacher reads the line, then the class repeats from memory.Students are given sets of three poems each and asked to read each one, then chose one that they would like to practice and perform on their own, for the teacher.
  • Echo reading warm-up / review, but this time students are given a copy of the poem. The teacher introduces the oral poetry rubric and familiarizes the students, going over vocabulary within the rubric, then gives various levels of performance for the children to rate.The teacher suggests that beyond the individual poems, class will be working on preparing a poetry performance for a given audience (parents, another class, or in-class performance) – but for that, we are going to have to practice a lot! The teacher models effective group rehearsal.Students are paired in pre-assigned small groups or pairs to rehearse poems that match the group and student ability levels.
  • Class choral reading or longer passages of echo reading. Mini-lesson on how intonation and pitch can change the interpretation of characters and setting in poetry. Students are asked to rehearse two versions of their poem to show how their voice can change the interpretation.Students rehearse group poems and individual poems. Teacher circulates and meets with small groups according to need.Homework includes having an experienced reader read the text with the child.
  • Mini lesson on using context clues to determine the nuance of vocabulary word meaning within the context of poetry. Students work on finding and defining words in their selected poems.Students are set up in triad groups, so that each group performs for once, then listens to two group performances. Rubric is reviewed and groups self assess their progress.Continued reading at home for students who need additional practice to develop prosody.
  • Morning rehearsals focus on the finer points of oral presentation, organization, props, etc. Whole class choral reading and small group poems are polished for “dress rehearsal. Poetry Jam performances scheduled in the afternoon.Continued options for literacy activities: illustrations, word work, vocabulary development, writing.
  • Oral Reading Fluency Research

    1. 1. Tim IrishElementary Curriculum CoordinatorUniversal American School, KuwaitED 520 Strengthening Literacy:Implementing Solutions for School-wideEffective Reading Instruction American College of Education November 2, 2012
    2. 2. • Fluency is broken into three component parts:accuracy, automaticity and prosody.• Mastery of the previous component supportsdevelopment of the next component.• Students who read with higher levels of automaticitydemonstrate higher levels of comprehension.• There is a strongcorrelation between ORFand reading achievement.Kuhn, Schwanenflugel andMeisinger, 2010;Rasinski, 2000; Stahl &Heubach, 2005.
    3. 3. “Reading authorities have condemned the practice ofhaving children taking turns reading aloud whileeveryone in the class follows along.” Shanahan, 2006 Shanahan also cautions against the use ofReaders’ Theater because students can end upwaiting too long for their part. Choral reading, echoreading, and repeated reading are more effective. National Reading Panel, 2000; Stallings, 1980; Shanahan, 2006
    4. 4. Although one emphasis of fluency instruction isautomaticity, teachers must be careful for students toperceive that reading is a “race” to read faster. Kuhn and Schwanenflugel (2008)Instructional focus needs to support prosody, sostudents can use phrasing and inflection to supportunderstanding of the printed word. (Hudson, Lane & Pullen 2005; Kuhn & Stahl, 2003; Rasinski, 2005).
    5. 5. • Increase opportunities to hear native languagereading to model appropriatedsyntax, pronunciation, inflection and phrasing(prosody).• Increase reading to an adult with correctivefeedback on word errors.(Han & Chen, 2010)
    6. 6. Include pre-reading activities that access prior knowledge and vocabulary.Allow for repeatedreading ofchallengingtexts.(Han & Chen, 2010)
    7. 7. Progressmonitoring isimportant tomeasurestudentresponse
    8. 8. By reading the same story or text to reachperformance level…• Students can slow down and learn to hearthe words in their head.• Take time to develop the phasing and rhythmrequired to comprehend the text• Transfer fluency and comprehension skills tonew text. (Rasinski, 2004; Stahl & Heubach, 2005; Turner, 2010).
    9. 9. Fluency Oriented Instruction (FORI) is awhole group instructional approachemphasizing repeated readings of the sametext throughout a school week. The FORI model allows teacher to model andpromote prosodic reading while encouraginghigher percentages of time on task than round-robin models. Stahl & Heubach, 2005; Turner, 2010.
    10. 10. Pre-reading activities: Set goals Introduce class choral reading Vocabulary Model reading Build background knowledgeModeling throughEcho ReadingStudents selectand practicepoems.
    11. 11. Review Echo Reading from Day 1Introduce and review assessment rubricModel how to runan effectiverehearsalSmall grouprehearsal
    12. 12. Extend echo reading with longer passagesVocabulary / Writing / ComprehensionIndependent and group work.Provide Additionalsupport as neededPractice athome
    13. 13. Mini-lesson on context clues: “Nuance”Vocabulary / Writing /ComprehensionStudent groups assesswith rubric.Additional Practice atsupport as homeneeded
    14. 14. Morning dress rehearsalVocabularyWritingComprehensionAfternoonperformance
    15. 15. • Content may also include non-fiction readingand oral reports.• Avoid long performances: Children do not needto perform for everyone, nor see everyperformance.• Plan instructional support options for strugglingreaders.• Intervention time and intensity is variabledepending on individual student need.
    16. 16. ReferencesDaughery Stahl, K.A. (2005). Improving the asphalt of reading instruction: A tribute to the work of Steven A. Stahl. The Reading Teacher, 59(2), 184-192. http://search.proquest.com/docview/ 203285206?accountid=31683Han, Z.H. & Chen, C.A. (2010). Repeated-reading-based instructional strategy and vocabulary acquisition: A case study of a heritage speaker of Chinese. Reading in a Foreign Language , 22(2), 242–262. ISSN 1539-0578Hofstadter-Duke,K.L. & Daly, E.J. (2011). Improving oral reading fluency with a peer mediated intervention. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 44(3), 641-646. http://search.proquest.com/docview/896736015?accountid=31683Hudson, R.F., Lane, H.B. & Pullen, P.C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714. doi:10.1598/RT.58.8.1Kuhn, M. R.. & Steven A. Stahl, S.A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 3-21. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.3
    17. 17. ReferencesKuhn, M. (2004). Helping students become accurate, expressive readers: Fluency instruction for small groups. The Reading Teacher, 58(4), 338-344. http://search.proquest.com/docview/203278324?accountid=31683Kuhn, M. R, Schwanenflugel, P.J & Meisinger, E. B (2010). Aligning theory and assessment of reading fluency: Automaticity, prosody, and definitions of fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2 ), 230-251. http://search.proquest.com/docview/212134977?accountid=31683Kuhn, M. & Schwanenflugel, P. (2008). All oral reading practice is not equal or how can I integrate fluency into my classroom? Literacy Teaching and Learning, 20(1), 1-20.Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S.,Parker, K. and Cirino,P.T. (2006). The response to intervention of English language learners at risk for reading problems. Journal of learning Disabilities, 39(5), 390-398. http://search.proquest.com/docview/194223081?accountid=31683Mesner, E . M. & Mesner, H.A. (2008). Response to Intervention (RTI): What Teachers of Reading Need to Know. The Reading Teacher, 62(4), 280-290. http://search.proquest.com/docview/203285921?accountid=31683
    18. 18. ReferencesRasinski,T. (2000). Speed does matter in reading. The Reading Teacher, 54(2), 146– 151. http://www.pbs.org/teacherline/courses/rdla150/docs/ c1s3_10speeddoesmatter.pdfRasinski, T. (2004). What research says about reading: Creating fluent readers. Educational Leadership, 61(6), 46-51. EJ 716702Shanahan, T. (2006). The national reading report: Practical advice for teachers. Napervile: Learning Point Associates.Stahl, S. A., & Heubach, K. (2005). Fluency-oriented reading instruction. Journal of Literacy Research, 37(1), 25-60. ISSN:1086-296XTurner, F.D. (2010). Evaluating the effectiveness of fluency-oriented reading instruction with increasing Black and Latino reading fluency, as compared to Asian and White second-grade students reading fluency. The Journal of Negro Education, 79(2), 112- 124. ISSN: 00222984