Accuracy-Decoding of WordsAutomaticity- Speed measured in words per minute (WPM)Prosody-Expression and phrasing-According to the research, fluency is important because it moves the reader from simply decoding words to making, or what we call comprehension
Most of my 1st graders begin the year reading like robots-Slow, choppy, reading word by word, with inappropriate use punctuation and pauses. Because they are not fluent, they struggle with comprehension. As a result, they are not able to derive meaning from books. All of this contributes to frustrated children who are reluctant to read. They are working so hard to figure out how what the words say, that they cant focus on deriving meaning to comprehend the story.
I teach 80% of the day in Spanish. The class is comprised of some low income ELL’s and mostly upper middle class SLL’s. English dominant, above level Spanish readers, and Spanish dominant below level Spanish readers-all learning to read in SpanishThis is a challenge because there are so many variables. One thing they have in common is they love to talk-to each other. How can we make this more socially relevant?
How many times have you read the same paragraph 3 times? Children read the same book 3 times and time themselves to see if they can beat their WPM score. Sound boring? After a while, they think so too. Once the novelty of timing each other wore off, they needed something else. It’s also not very interactive. One person reads, the other watches the timer. Is repeated, timed reading the only way?They don’t read together. It isn’t social.
Empowers students to entertain and deliver meaning to their audienceBy using their voicesRead aloud presented by a group of students presentation It’s Social!
We performed city Mouse/Country Mouse and students were engaged. They said wanted to practice more playsReader’s Theater is social. They work in groups, read together, respond to each other, help each other act out parts and practice together.
-learning occurs on a social plane, through social interactions, and in a social context
My procedures differ due to demographics of my class
Motivation-Students even expressed interest in writing their own scriptsThey were no longer reluctant to repeat read because it was a fun to rehearse with their friendsNelson’s story” One of my most reluctant readers when it came to timed reading, became so engaged, he stumbled upon an RT book in the library and asked if he could choose a group to perform itI will definitely continue to use this activity and will work with them to develop their own scripts Show video interviews
The effects of reader’s theater on oral reading
The Effects of Reader’s Theater onOral Reading FluencyCathy C. Suarez
Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)• Accuracy• Automaticity• Prosody“ The gateway to comprehension ” (Rasinski, p. 7042006).Fluency is intertwined with reading comprehension(Pikulski & Chard 2005).National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s [NICHD] 2006 ;Pikulski & Chard, 2005; Rasinki, 2006, Samuels 2006, Tyler & Chard 2000)
The Problem• Dysfluent Reading• Low comprehension rates• Frustration and reluctance in students to repeat read
The Question• How would the use of Spanish Reader’sTheater affect the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)in a 1st grade, two-way, 80/20 Dual Languageclassroom?
Repeated Reading Strategy• Exposure to the same text multiple times increasesoral reading fluency, which leads to improvedcomprehension(Gorsuch &Taguchi, 2010; NICHD, 2006; Rasinski, 2006); Tyler &Chard, 2000; Welsch, 2006; Young & Rasinski, 2009)
Reader’s Theater• Students reading text in scripted format as a group• Requires repeated reading for “rehearsals”• Provides a reason to read with fluency andexpression(Avi, 2009; Flynn, 2004; Rasinski, 2000, 2003; Rieg, 2009; andYoung & Timothy Rasinski , 2009)
Current Research• “A natural and authentic way to promote repeatedreadings" (Rasinksi 2000).• Improves automaticity, prosody and comprehension(Girffith &Rasinksi 2004, Young & Rasinski 2009).• Struggling readers are motivated by playing acharacter, moving around, and working in groups (Tyler& Chard 2000).
Rate010203040506070Juanita Cruz Emily Matthews Jack Smith Danilo Martinez Janice Baker Elaine Botero Eric PearsonPre- WPMMid-WPMEnd-WPM
Increase in EDL Levels024681012141618AliceHendersonAdolfoRomeroFernandoDiazAntonioSantosElaineBoteroJack Smith JaniceBakerJuanitaCruzEmilyMatthewsDaniloMartinezEricPearsonJanuary EDLApril EDL
Limitations• Time: Spring Break, Easter, bad weather day, end ofyear activities• Variables: tutoring, interventions, comprehensionfocus, maturity, language acquisition,• Selection: Spanish, levels, relevance• Insufficient research: demographics, language,
Conclusion• Fluency is more than Words per minute.• While automaticity did not change significantly……..• Accuracy and Prosody increased• Motivation and interest increased• Confidence and engagement increased• Increase from 2-4 reading levels