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  2. 4. Components of Evidence-Based Reading Instruction <ul><li>Phonological Awareness Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological awareness is a broad term and consists of identifying and manipulating parts of spoken language including words, syllables, onsets and rimes, and phonemes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness , which is a subcategory of phonological awareness, is the conscious awareness that spoken language is made up of individual sounds (i.e., phonemes). </li></ul></ul>
  3. 5. Research - <ul><li>The findings….P 263 </li></ul>
  4. 6. Phonics Instruction <ul><li>Print is introduced and paired with corresponding sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics instruction focuses on helping students learn the relationships between graphemes and phonemes. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Phonics Instruction (cont’d) <ul><li>The National Reading Panel (2000) and Put Reading First (2001) describe the following six phonics instructional approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy-based phonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytic phonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded phonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonics through spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onset-rime phonics instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic phonics </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Fluency Instruction <ul><li>Fluency is the ability to read quickly and accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>Research indicates that fluency in reading text is highly correlated to reading comprehension. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Fluency and Theory <ul><li>Theory of Automaticity </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Sight Word Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Cumulative Deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Theory/Research of Processing Speed </li></ul>
  8. 10. Fluency and Stages of Reading Development   <ul><li>Prereading (Emergent Literacy)-Kindergarten </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding—Grades 1–2 </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation and Fluency—Grade 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Reading to Learn—Grades 4–8 </li></ul><ul><li>Reading for Multiple Viewpoints-Grades 9–12 </li></ul><ul><li>Reading to Construct New Knowledge    </li></ul>
  9. 11. Vocabulary Instruction <ul><li>Vocabulary refers to the words a person has learned and uses to communicate effectively. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral vocabulary (i.e., auditory processing of spoken words) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading vocabulary (i.e., visual processing of printed words). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Comprehension Instruction <ul><li>Comprehension is an active process that enables the learner to understand the words being read. Comprehension is the reason for reading, and it requires purposeful and thoughtful interaction with text. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Comprehension Instruction <ul><li>The National Reading Panel (2000) reviewed 481 studies on text comprehension and found seven instructional strategies that appear to have a solid scientific basis for students without reading disabilities. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Comprehension Instruction <ul><li>NRP’s 7 instructional strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of graphic and semantic organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question answering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing story starters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarizing </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Comprehension Instruction for Students with Reading Disabilities   <ul><li>Comprehension interventions that are most effective support the view that learning disabilities primarily result from language-based inadequacies </li></ul><ul><li>The best overall reading comprehension program combines basic reading skills instruction, reading fluency instruction, self-questioning strategies, comprehension monitoring, and encouraging students to view their success as a function of their own efforts. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Comprehension Instruction for Students with Reading Disabilities  (cont’d) <ul><li>Vocabulary acquisition and fluency training are necessary but not sufficient components of reading comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjunct aids including highlighting, underlining, embedded questions, semantic feature relationship charts, study guides, and mnemonic illustrations improve comprehension. These adjunct aids only improve the specific passages that include them. To promote transfer learning, explicit generalization training must be provided. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Comprehension Instruction for Students with Reading Disabilities  (cont’d) <ul><li>Self-questioning training that requires students to question the purposes and structure of text and activate prior knowledge, focus on important information, and monitor the flow of comprehension are likely to improve reading comprehension when students possess the essential preskills necessary to read the text. </li></ul><ul><li>The combination of self questioning strategies and text-specific study enhancements holds much promise for improving comprehension. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Comprehension Instruction for Students with Reading Disabilities  (cont’d) <ul><li>For research-based strategies to improve reading comprehension, it is essential for teachers to carefully design instruction; provide modeling, support, guidance, extended application practice, strategic feedback, and appropriate attributional feedback; and monitor student progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct instruction (e.g., Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading ) yields positive outcomes in reading comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole language interventions yield the least positive outcomes. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Core Developmental Reading Approaches <ul><li>Basal reading approach </li></ul><ul><li>Literature-based reading approach </li></ul><ul><li>Whole language approach </li></ul><ul><li>Language Experience approach </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics approach </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic Approach: Word Families and Onset-Rime </li></ul>
  18. 20. Remedial Reading Programs <ul><li>Reading Mastery & Corrective Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Success for All </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Recovery </li></ul>
  19. 21. Reading Instructional Methods <ul><li>Remedial methods for students with moderate to severe reading problems (e.g., nonreaders or students who are more than 1 year behind in reading achievement): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multisensory reading method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oral reading fluency methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer-assisted reading method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keyword method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reciprocal teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mapping strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high interest–low vocabulary method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>life skills reading </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Designing a Reading Program <ul><li>Guidelines for designing a reading program that is responsive to a diversity of learners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use effective teaching principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide prereading experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the nature of reading development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide explicit and implicit reading instruction </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Reading Activities <ul><li>Prereading Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts About Print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Word-Attack Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension Activities </li></ul>
  22. 24. Instructional Games in Reading <ul><li>Vowel spinner </li></ul><ul><li>Blend game </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics rummy </li></ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Word bingo </li></ul><ul><li>Word war </li></ul><ul><li>Dominoes </li></ul><ul><li>Word game board </li></ul><ul><li>Word baseball </li></ul><ul><li>Chance dice reading game </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery detective game </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension game </li></ul>
  23. 25. Self-Correcting Reading Materials <ul><li>Flip-siders </li></ul><ul><li>Punch-through cards </li></ul><ul><li>Clothespin wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Poke box </li></ul><ul><li>Synonym lotto </li></ul><ul><li>Tape recorder reading </li></ul><ul><li>Comic strips/sentence strips </li></ul><ul><li>Packaged comprehension </li></ul>
  24. 26. Commercial Reading Programs <ul><li>Edmark Reading Program </li></ul><ul><li>Great Leaps Reading Program </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Strategies Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Phonic Reading Lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological Awareness Training for Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Skill Series for Reading & Multiple Skills Series for Reading </li></ul><ul><li>SRA Early Interventions in Reading </li></ul>
  25. 27. Reading & Study Skills for Adolescents <ul><li>Dixon, Carnine, and Kame’enui (1992) suggest the following guidelines for teaching adolescents to read: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use instructional time efficiently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remediate early, strategically, and often. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach less but do so more thoroughly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach reading strategies explicitly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a balance of teacher-directed and student-centered activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate progress frequently to determine effectiveness of instruction. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Reading & Study Skills for Adolescents <ul><li>Reading rate </li></ul><ul><li>Study skills </li></ul><ul><li>Learning strategies </li></ul>