The American War for Independence (1776-1783) “These are the times that try men’s souls” -Thomas Paine, 1780
War : European Tactics (1700s) Great Britain -“rules” of “gentlemanly” warfare No attacking at night, No sneak attacks Mercenaries were common Soldiers lowly regarded British “Redcoats” in British society
War: American Tactics (1700s) Colonial warfare based on style of Natives American militia “Skulking” style of war included sneak attacks, adjustments Hid behind walls, no uniforms, ambushed enemies Local militias
Continental army Created by George Washington Fought alongside various state militias Provided Washington with better idea of soldiers’ capabilities and length of service (1 year) Washington’s greatest Infantry training accomplishment of the war
Revolutionary Leaders1- George Washington- leader of Continental Army2- William Howe- head of British army in 17763- John Burgoyne- defeated at Saratoga4- Lord Cornwallis- surrendered British army at Yorktown5- Benedict Arnold- switched from American to British after Saratoga6- Nathaneal Greene- RI native, Washington’s top field general
Opening Moves ! Britis hto s e ize NY 1776: Howe ’s troops drive Wa s hington out of NY Wa s hington a nd troops a ga in drive n from Ma nha tta n to White P la ins NY be come s the Britis h he a dqua rte rs for the wa r!!
Opening Moves Cont…Philly where the British begin to move onto Continental Congress was meeting! Washington’s troops get word of this… THREE BATTLES>>>>>1. Battle of TRENTON2. Saratoga3. Yorktown
1. Battle of Trenton December, 1776: Washington plans surprise attack of Hessian camp at Trenton, NJ. December 25: Washington attacks on Christmas night, kills/captures 1,000 men 3 days later: defeat of British at Princeton, NJ forces British to return to NY for winter
Results of Battle of Trenton Soldiers encouraged to re-enlist Morale of army shot up Washington showcased leadership skills 2nd Guessing: Why didWashington crossing the Delaware River on his way to Trenton Howe not deal “knock- out” blow in NY?
2. Saratoga: France Enters 1777- British capture Philadelphia, Continental Congress escapes Valley Forge- winter of 1777- 78: nearly 2,500 American soldiers die from cold, food shortages October 1777- Gen. Burgoyne’s troops captured outside Saratoga, NY Result: France enters war Marquis de Lafayette
3. Yorktown, 1781: War in the South 1778- British turn to South Savannah, GA and Charlestown, SC fell to British Battle of KingsLord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Mountain- victory for VA Patriots!!! British surrender at Yorktown (1781)
Treaty of Paris (1783) British recognized USA as a new nation!!!! Mississippi River is western border (open to British use) Florida given back to Spain!! France received colonies in Africa and Caribbean
Other Contributors to Revolution Women- cooking, nursing of soldiers, taking control of family business, spies African-Americans- British/Americans offered freedom in exchange for military service (5,000 for “Molly Pitcher” helping colonial soldiers America) Loyalists- remained loyal to Britain, in some cases fled or lost land
Effects of Revolution New political ideas (republic) New state constitutions (guarantee of rights) Voting rights expandFirst flag of the United (social class) States Freedom of religion Educational changes American painters
Why did Britain lose the war??? Atlantic Ocean Tried to occupy a whole continent American perseverance, fighting spirit George Washington, other generals HMMMM… French aid War unpopular in Britain