Chapter 6


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Chapter 6

  1. 1. The American Revolutionary War
  2. 2. CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Proclamation of 1763 stops colonists from moving west Parliament taxes the colonies to pay British war debts Intolerable Acts set up harsh rule in Massachusetts EFFECTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Colonies declare independence Britain recognizes United States independence United States borders extend to Florida and the Mississippi River George Washington emerges as a leader
  3. 3. Strengths and Weaknesses
  4. 4. The Opposing Sides One of the Patriots’ greatest advantages was which of the following? A.A larger population B.Mercenaries fighting on their side C.A stronger navy D.George Washington as their military leader E.Tom Brady
  5. 5. British Strengths… Population 8 million vs. 2.5 million colonists Monetary Wealth Royal Navy Professional Army Trained and experienced 50,000 British 30,000 Hessian mercenaries 30,000 American Loyalists (Tories)
  6. 6. British Weaknesses… Unrest in Ireland Government inept and confused, led by King George III and Lord North Lack of desire to crush American cousins Whigs cheered American victories in Parliament
  7. 7. British Weaknesses… Military Difficulties Second-rate generals Inadequate and poor provisions Need for clear victory, a draw would be a colonial victory Armies 3,000 miles from home, took months to reach the front Vast colonial territory to conquer (1,000 x 600 miles)
  8. 8. American Strengths… Outstanding Leadership Military – George Washington Diplomatic – Benjamin Franklin European Imports Marquis de Lafayette Comte de Rochambeau Francois De Grasse Thaddeus Kosciusko Casimir Pulaski Friedrich von Steuben
  9. 9. American Strengths… Colonists fighting defensively Self-sustaining agricultural base Colonists better marksmen? Moral advantage Good cause with a positive goal
  10. 10. American Weaknesses… TROUBLES WITH GOVERNMENT: Colonies were poorly organized and not united for war Continental Congress debated, took little action, and exercised little leadership No written constitution until 1781 Colonies were jealous of Congress and each other ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES: Little metallic currency available Fearful of taxation Congress issued virtually worthless currency
  11. 11. American Weaknesses… MILITARY DIFFICULTIES: Inadequate firearms, cannons, and gunpowder (the colonists had enough for each soldier to fire nine shots) Clothing and shoes scarce (2,800 men barefoot at Valley Forge) No Navy American soldiers numerous but unreliable
  12. 12. The Opposing Sides
  13. 13. Capture of Fort Ticonderoga May 10, 1775 Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold with the Vermont militia, the Green Mountain Boys, captured the mostly abandoned British fort without a fight Captured valuable cannons and gunpowder Took control of a key route to Canada
  14. 14. Battle of Bunker Hill June 17, 1775 Colonel William Prescott led 1,200 militia to take the high ground over Boston Harbor Colonial troops dug in and prepared defenses on Breed’s Hill
  15. 15. British General William Howe attacks: 2,400 redcoats under his command British are repelled after two frontal assaults On the third attack, the militia ran out of gunpowder, and the British took the position
  16. 16. Losses… BRITISH 226 killed COLONISTS 115 killed (19 officers) 828 wounded 305 wounded (62 officers) 30 captured 1,054 total casualties (20 died as POW) 450 total casualties
  17. 17. Although the British won the Battle of Bunker Hill, they learned that defeating the Americans on the battlefield would not be quick or easy
  18. 18. The Death of the American General Warren by John Trumbull
  19. 19. British Grenadiers attack on Breed's Hill
  20. 20. More Military Action Which of the following shows the correct chronology? A. Bunker Hill, Lexington, Ft. Ticonderoga B. Concord, Yorktown, Lexington A. A D.Lexington, Ft. Ticonderoga, Bunker B. B Hill C. C E.Concord, Lexington, Bunker Hill D. D C. Yorktown, Lexington, Concord
  21. 21. Early Battles
  22. 22. Redcoats Leave Boston March 5, 1776 General Henry Knox and the Continental Army took the cannons captured from Fort Ticonderoga 300 miles to Dorchester Heights, overlooking Boston Harbor General Howe and the British are forced to retreat from Boston to Halifax, Canada
  23. 23. King George III of Great Britain declared, "The colonies are in open and avowed rebellion. The die is now cast. The colonies must either submit or triumph." The King ordered the blockade of all colonial ports by the Royal Navy
  24. 24. Attack onCanada Richard Montgomery captured Montreal in November, 1775 Benedict Arnold and Montgomery marched on Quebec: Poor planning and bad weather weakened the attack British reinforcements forced Colonists to withdraw, leaving Canada to the British and Montgomery dead British and Canadians lost 20 men The American losses were around 500
  25. 25. “The Death of Montgomery” by John Trumbull
  26. 26. Battle of Long Island August 27, 1776 General Howe’s British forces completely outnumbered and outmaneuvered the Americans 500 Ships 20,000 Troops Washington and his 10,000 defeated troops retreated across the Hudson River to New Jersey under the cover of darkness Had General Howe pursued and continued the attack, he would have captured Washington, crushed the Continental Army, and ended the war Casualties: British: 400 American : 2,000 men and several cannons
  27. 27. Battle of White Plains October 28, 1776 Washington halted the American retreat at White Plains to prepare a defense British forces led by General Howe attacked Hessians mercenaries led by Colonel Johann Gottlieb Rall outmaneuvered American militia on Chatterton’s Hill, and forced Washington’s forces to break and continue to retreat
  28. 28. Battle of Fort Washington November 16, 1776 British and Hessian forces outflanked and defeated the Americans last position in New York 2,900 Americans were captured and lost valuable guns, gunpowder, and cannons The Continental Army retreated across New Jersey into Pennsylvania
  29. 29. British troops crossing the Hudson River  
  30. 30. Molly Pitcher The only American hero to emerge from the loss at Fort Washington was Margaret “Molly” Corbin. “Molly Pitcher” was the wife of a Pennsylvania soldier, John Corbin, who had gone into battle at her husband’s side bringing water to swab cannons After her husband was killed, she stepped into his place to load and fire a cannon, until she fell wounded.
  31. 31. December, 1776 “The American Crisis” Thomas Paine published a series of pamphlets to boost American morale The first volume began with the famous words: “These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.
  32. 32. Americans Turn the Tide
  33. 33. Battle of Trenton December 26, 1776 Washington’s famous crossing of the Delaware River 2,400 Troops 18 Cannons The town was defended by 1,200 Hessians with 6 light guns commanded by the feared Colonel Rall On the night before the attack, Rall was at dinner when he was brought information about the American attack Rall ignored the message, which was found in his pocket after his death
  34. 34. The American forces attacked from three directions The surprised Hessians attempted to form ranks in the town, but were attacked from the front and rear Surrounded and mortally wounded, Rall surrendered Casualties: Hessians: 21 killed, 90 wounded, 900 captured Americans: 4 wounded, 2 possibly froze to death
  35. 35. General George Washington “Crossing the Delaware” at the Battle of Trenton on Christmas night, 1776 by Emmanuel Leutze 
  36. 36. The surrender to General George Washington of the dying Hessian commander, Colonel Rall, at the Battle of Trenton
  37. 37. Battle in the Streets of Trenton
  38. 38. General Washington leading the attack at the Battle of Trenton 
  39. 39. Battle of Princeton January 3, 1777 British Major General Lord Charles Cornwallis attempted to retake Trenton from the Americans Washington decided to leave Trenton before his army was attacked and outnumbered In the middle of the night, the Americans left fires burning, and outmaneuvered the British at Princeton Washington was not able to hold Princeton for long, and was forced to retreat as his army was outnumbered
  40. 40. General Washington leads the attack at the Battle of Princeton 
  41. 41. Battle of Brandywine September 11, 1777 General Howe brought his army by sea to the Chesapeake intending to capture Philadelphia Washington took up defensive positions at Brandywine Creek, Pennsylvania to block them British and Hessian forces outmaneuvered the Americans and forced them to retreat, opening the route to Philadelphia
  42. 42. Battle of Germantown October 4, 1777 Washington planned a surprise attack on British and Hessian forces encamped at Germantown, Pennsylvania The plan was much like the attack on Trenton, as the Americans were to attack from four directions at night Confusion and heavy fog led to American forces breaking and retreating
  43. 43. October 17, 1777 Battle of Saratoga British planned to cut off the New England colonies at the Hudson River Three-Part strategy to attack Albany: 1. General John Burgoyne from the north 2.  Colonel Barry St. Leger from the west 3. General William Howe from the south
  44. 44. General Howe changed his plans and attacked Philadelphia first: Captures Philadelphia – Continental Congress flees to Baltimore Howe retires to Philadelphia for comfortable winter quarters Washington retreats to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania Betsy Ross sews first “stars and stripes” flag?
  45. 45. Colonel St. Leger was driven back by Benedict Arnold at the Battle of Oriskany Burgoyne moved south and retook Crown Point and Fort Ticonderoga Burgoyne was surrounded by American General Horatio Gates at Saratoga, New York On October 17, 1777 Burgoyne surrendered 5,800 men British General William Howe was replaced by Henry Clinton
  46. 46. Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga by Fauvel 
  47. 47. General John Burgoyne surrenders to General Horatio Gates
  48. 48. French Alliance
  49. 49. French Alliance February 6, 1778 Benjamin Franklin was in Paris to convince King Louis XVI to help with weapons, supplies, troops, and strong naval forces The French, still angry about their defeat in the French and Indian War, wanted proof that the Americans could win before they would help Saratoga convinced the French to declare war on Britain King Louis offered troops, the French navy, money, supplies, and a treaty of alliance
  50. 50. The War Comes to an End
  51. 51. Victory at Sea September 23, 1779 John Paul Jones on the USS Bon Homme Richard, attacked a larger British warship, the HMS Serapis His ship hit and in flames, Jones stated, “I have not yet begun to fight!” when asked to surrender American boarding parties defeated the British and captured the Serapis in bloody hand-to-hand combat
  52. 52. Battle of Flamborough Head, 23rd September 1779
  53. 53. An American Traitor Deep in debt, passed over for promotion, and bitter about not getting enough credit, Benedict Arnold made a secret deal to offer to the British the American fort at West Point Arnold's scheme was detected when American forces captured British Major John André carrying papers that revealed Arnold's plan Benedict Arnold escaped to a British ship and left for England
  55. 55. Battle of the Chesapeake September 5, 1781 French Admiral Comte de Grasse defeated British Admiral Sir Thomas Graves at the mouth of the Chesapeake River, Virginia The victory of the French fleet prevented the Royal Navy from resupplying, reinforcing, or allowing British troops to evacuate
  56. 56. Battle of Yorktown September 28 – October 19, 1781 British General Charles Cornwallis marched his army to Yorktown, Virginia American and French forces surrounded Cornwallis British forces were low on ammunition and food, could not be reinforced, resupplied, or evacuated by sea due to the French naval blockade Cornwallis was forced to march out of Yorktown and surrender CASUALTIES: British: 500 killed, 6,000 captured American and French: 80 American and 200 French
  57. 57. The British Surrender at Yorktown 19th October 1781
  58. 58. The British Surrender at Yorktown 19th October 1781
  59. 59. Treaty of Paris of 1783
  60. 60. American negotiators Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams, and Henry Laurens PROVISIONS: Britain formally recognized the independence of the United States Tories (Loyalists) were allowed to file legal suits to reclaim lost property NEW BOUNDARIES: Great Lakes to the North Mississippi River to the West Florida to the South (returned to Spain) Treaty ratified by Congress on April 15, 1783
  61. 61. Signing of the preliminary Treaty of Paris, November 30, 1782.
  62. 62. Benjamin West's painting of the delegations at the Treaty of Paris: John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed
  63. 63. Review Question 1
  64. 64. Review Question 2
  65. 65. Review Question 3
  66. 66. The End