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Independence p2


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Independence p2

  1. 1. U.S. HistoryThe American Revolution Declaring Independence
  2. 2. Common Sense Thomas  Paine: author of Common Sense 38 yrs old Thomas Paine
  3. 3. Common Sense47 pages, 500KcopiesArgued forbreaking awayfrom BritainPlain language Cover of Common Sense
  4. 4. “I offer nothing morethan simple facts, plain arguments, and common sense . . ."Common Sense
  5. 5. “I have heard it asserted that as America hath flourished under herformer connection with Great Britain, the same connection is necessary towards her future happiness, and will always have the same effect. Nothing can be more fallacious than this kind of argument…” Common Sense
  6. 6. “But Britain is the parent country,say some. Then the more shame upon her conduct. Even brutes do not devour their young, nor savages make war upon their families…” Common Sense
  7. 7. “Nothing but independence…can keep thepeace of the continent…A government of our own is our natural right: and when a man seriously reflects on the precariousness ofhuman affairs, he will become convinced that it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own in a cool deliberate manner, while we have it in our power…” Common Sense
  8. 8. DeclaringIndependence  Lee Resolution: “These United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States…”  Proposed June 7, 1776Richard Henry Lee
  9. 9. Declaring IndependenceJune 10, 1776: Congress appoints a committee to draft a statement of independence
  10. 10. Thomas Jefferson Virginia
  11. 11. Roger Sherman Connecticut
  12. 12. Benjamin Franklin Pennsylvania
  13. 13. Robert Livingston New York
  14. 14. John AdamsMassachusetts
  15. 15. John Adams to Thomas Jefferson:  You are a Virginian  You are a better writer  I am obnoxious!DeclaringIndependence
  16. 16. DeclaringIndependenceJuly 2,1776: LeeResolutionadopted Lee Resolution
  17. 17. “The 2nd day of July 1776 will be the mostmemorable in the epocha in the history ofAmerica. I am apt to believe that it will becelebrated by succeeding generations as thegreat anniversary festival…with pomp andparade, with shows, games, sports, guns,bells, bonfires, and illuminations from oneend of this continent to the other…” --John Adams, in a letter to Abigail AdamsDeclaringIndependence
  18. 18. DeclaringIndependence July 4, 1776:  Declaration of Independence adopted Declaration of Independence
  19. 19. DeclaringIndependenceAugust 2,1776:Declarationsigned Declaration of Independence
  20. 20. The Document:  Unalienable rights  Listed rights violated by George II  Asserted right to break awayDeclaringIndependence
  21. 21. Patriots—colonists who chose to fight for independence Loyalists—colonists who sided with Great Britain in the fight for IndependenceChoosing Sides
  22. 22. Choosing Sides 100,000  Loyalists fled America William Franklin William Franklin Thomas Fairfax 
  23. 23. “…all men are created equal…”Other Reactions to theDeclaration
  24. 24.  Not included in the Declaration: Rights of women Rights of African  AmericansOther Reactions to theDeclaration
  25. 25. Other Reactions to the DeclarationAbigail Adams: wrote an appeal to include the rights of women in the Declaration Abigail Adams
  26. 26. Other Reactions to the Declaration  Jefferson included a passage attacking slave trade  Removed  Slavery/liberty coexist? Thomas Jefferson
  27. 27.  GW ordered that no black soldier could serve Leaders feared slaves having weapons 1775, VA offered freedom to slaves who would leave their owners to fight Army enlisted free African Americans 5,000 African American Patriots fought American Indians knowledge of land and recruitment led to an end of the Iroquois League- some fought for Britain & some the U.S. African Americans and American Indians
  28. 28.  Few fought, others worked as spies or messengers Deborah Sampson Garnett of Massachusetts disguised herself as a man and fought as Robert Sheffield- after she died in 1827 Congress gave her husband a pension as a widow of the war Worked as cooks, laundresses, nurses Made uniforms and manufactured bullets Women
  29. 29. DeborahSampson
  30. 30. MaryLudwig Hays aka MollyPitcher
  31. 31.  At your table complete the following:  Handout on Thomas Paine’s Common Sense  Primary Source Analysis  Understanding Common Sense chart  Handout: Grievances from the Declaration of Independence  Drawing Connections between Common Sense and the Declaration of IndependenceSummarizer
  32. 32. Learning Goal: Critique the importance of foreign involvement in the American Revolution [6.11.4]There’sSomethingAbout aWar…
  33. 33. Offensive vs. Defensive War Make Canada “14 th Colony”British Victories
  34. 34. British Victories General Richard Montgomery leads forces into Canada General Richard Montgomery
  35. 35. November1775:Patriotforcescapture St.John’s &Montreal
  36. 36. British VictoriesBenedictArnoldleadsforces toQuebec Benedict Arnold
  37. 37. Arnold waits for Montgomery No cannonsBritish Victories
  38. 38. Wait for snowstorm to provide cover December 31, 1775: attack launchedBritish Victories
  39. 39. Crushing defeat More than half of Patriot soldiers captured, killed, or woundedBritish Victories
  40. 40. British Victories•General Richard Montgomery killed
  41. 41. Washington moves troops to New York July 1776: British fleet arrives in NY BayBritish Victories
  42. 42. British Victories British troops led by William HoweWilliam Howe
  43. 43. Continentalsdriven off ofLong IslandRetreat toManhattanIsland
  44. 44.  Washington continued to retreat in a series of battles  Many Patriots captured or killed  Washington pushed into New JerseyBritish Victories
  45. 45. Victory in New Jersey November  1776: Howe captured New York Settle in for  winterGeneral William Howe
  46. 46. Victory in New JerseyNewJerseyleft inHessiancontrol
  47. 47. Battle of Trenton Referred to as the “10 crucial days” [12/25- 1/3] •Referred to as the “ten crucial days”…Dec. 25th to Jan. 3rd First major victory for { •First the Continental Army major victory for the Continental Army and and Washington Washington •Raised the morale of the American troops as well as the Raised morale of the country American troops as well as the country •Led to soldiers re-enlisting and future enlistmentsLed to soldiers re-enlisting and future enlistments •Captured over 1,000 Hessian soldiers, weapons, food and etc.Captured Army re-crossed the Delaware to Valley Forge in Pennsylvaniaetc. •American over 1,000 Hessian soldiers, weapons, food andAmerican Army re-crossed the Delaware to Valley Forge in PA
  48. 48. Battle of Princeton—battle in which Patriots circled a British camp in the dark & attacked in the morningVictory in New Jersey
  49. 49. Battle of Princeton  Campfires left burning Circles behind British  troopsVictory in New Jersey
  50. 50. Battle of Princeton Patriot Victory Second of  Washington’s three battlefield victoriesVictory in New Jersey
  51. 51. General Horatio Gates surrounds the British with the help of Benedict Arnold British defeat stopped them from cutting off New England from the rest of the country and ending the war. British lacked knowledge of geography and failed at communications. Oct. 1777, British General, JohnBurgoyne was surrounded by US GeneralHoratio Gates and forced to surrender6,000 British troops. Led to a military alliance with Franceproviding soldiers, naval fleet and $$$$$.(Franco-American alliance, 1778)
  52. 52. Turning Point atSaratoga General  Horatio Gates drove back a British attackHoratio Gates
  53. 53. Turning Point at Saratoga October 17, 1777: Burgoyne surrenders to Gates
  54. 54. Effects:  Morale boost Increased foreign  supportTurning Point atSaratoga
  55. 55. FranceForeign Aid Spain
  56. 56. Foreign Aid  Bernardo de Galvez  Spanish governor of Louisiana  Attacked British forts along Mississippi RiverBernardo de Galvez & Florida
  57. 57. Galveston Island named in honor
  58. 58. Foreign Aid  Marquis de Lafayette:  Arrived Summer 1777  Wounded at Brandywine Creek  Gave money to support RevolutionMarquis de Lafayette
  59. 59. December 1777: troops  settle at Valley Forge for winter Food & clothing shortages 1/5 of soldiers diedWinter at ValleyForge
  60. 60. Winter at Valley ForgeFriedrich vonSteuben:  Prussian Taught troops  drill procedure Friedrich von Steuben
  61. 61.  Navy & Marines established 1775  Feb 1776: only 8 ships  British had large navy  Strategy: attack individual shipsThe War at Sea
  62. 62. The War at Sea John Paul  Jones— responsible for much of America’s naval successJohn Paul Jones
  63. 63. “I have notyet begun to fight!”
  64. 64.  Victory at Yorktown  British surrendered after losing at Yorktown  Patriots defeat largest British force-  British Surrender at YorktownThe World Turned UpsideDown
  65. 65.  An agreement to stop the fighting between Britain and U.S. Purpose was to create peace between both countries  Wanted to end the fighting and killing Treaty signed on 9/3/1783  Preliminary articles signed 11/30/1782 The Treaty of Paris
  66. 66. British Obstacles in the Revolution  3) The American Spirit. So 1) Their army simply long as the colonists were wasnt large enough to determined to resist, the occupy enough square British would have a miles of territory in North difficult time retaining all America. the thirteen colonies. They had to break the 2) Distance. The American American will to fight or rebels had the "Home at least disrupt Americas Field" advantage, while unity to make it too Britain had to maintain painful for the colonists to long supply lines back to wage a sustained the Mother Country. rebellion.
  67. 67. Summarizer: On an exitslip answer the following:Could the colonies winwithout the support ofFrance?