The End Game


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The End Game

  1. 1. The Revolution in the Middle States <ul><li>British commanders, General William Howe and Richard Howe, sailed into New York harbor with 32,000 soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>The force contained a large number of Hessians </li></ul><ul><li>The British won the battle </li></ul><ul><li>Washington was outnumbered and many of his troops were untrained </li></ul><ul><li>Many of Washington’s men deserted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the battle the morale plummeted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a fierce storm, Washington lead 2,400 men in rowboats across the Delaware River </li></ul><ul><li>Washington and his men marched 9 miles through sleet and snow to Trenton </li></ul><ul><li>Trenton was held by Hessians (they were drunk) </li></ul><ul><li>Washington and his men killed 30 of the enemy and took 918 captives </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of New York </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Trenton </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Revolution in the Middle States <ul><li>Burgoyne wanted to isolate New England </li></ul><ul><li>Burgoyne set off with 4,000 redcoats </li></ul><ul><li>Burgoyne was bogged down by swamps </li></ul><ul><li>Burgoyne also clashed with patriots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He lost several hundred men each time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile, Howe, who told Burgoyne he’d meet up with him was not even planning on it anymore </li></ul><ul><li>The Americans won the battle </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers suffered from exposure and frostbite; limbs and arms had to be amputated </li></ul><ul><li>More than 2,000 died </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Saratoga </li></ul><ul><li>Valley Forge </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE END GAME <ul><li>Essential Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Who were Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben and Marquis de Lafayette? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Southern battles impact the war? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Battle of Guilford Courthouse impact the war? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the Battle of Yorktown important? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the Treaty of Paris important and what did it say? </li></ul>
  4. 4. European Allies <ul><li>Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German-Prussian office and talented drillmaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteered his services to Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He taught Washington’s army the essentials of military drill and discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Execute field maneuvers, fire and reload quickly, and wield bayonets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Marquis de Lafayette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealistic 20-year old French officer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Served as a General in the Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped lobby for French support </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. South Carolina Battles <ul><li>After their lose at Saratoga the British moved operations to the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They tried to rally Loyalist support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then they would fight north </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In their greatest victory of the war, they captured Charles Town, South Carolina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 1780 they marched 5,500 American soldiers off as prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, they were continuously harassed by Patriots and eventually their lines of communications were cut off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to retreat from the South </li></ul></ul>May 1780
  6. 6. Battle of Guilford Courthouse <ul><li>Cornwallis attacked American forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He won but 93 of his men were killed and over 400 wounded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cornwallis then chose to move the fight to Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>He then made his fateful mistake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He led his army of 7,500 men onto the peninsula between the James and York rivers </li></ul></ul>March 1781
  7. 7. Yorktown <ul><li>When word of Cornwallis’s move to Virginia reached Lafayette he suggested American and French armies join forces </li></ul><ul><li>French naval fleet moved in & defeated a British fleet in the Chesapeake Bay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They blocked the entrance to the Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About 17,000 French and American troops surround the British on the Yorktown Peninsula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American and French forces bombarded them day and night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The siege lasted about three weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>October 17,1781 Cornwallis finally raised the white flag of surrender </li></ul>October 1781
  8. 8. Treaty of Paris <ul><li>Continental Congress appointed Adams, Franklin and Jay as negotiators </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First thing they did was demand Britain recognize American independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Representatives of 4 nations participated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>America, Great Britain, France, & Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France supported U.S. independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain was interested in acquiring land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>September 1783 the delegates signed the Treaty of Paris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmed American independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the boundaries of the new nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. now stretched from: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River (east to west) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canada to the Florida border (north to south) </li></ul></ul></ul>September 1783