Unit 5: Rebirth of a Nation, Part One – 1877-1900 Section 1: “The Business of America is Business”: Industrial Expansion
Essential Questions• Was the growth of big business good or bad for ordinary Americans? Our economy?• What explains the rhetoric of “progress”? Did this idea clash with the founders’ vision for America?
Andrew Carnegie Social Gospel • Founded Carnegie Steel A Protestant (late 1870’s). Christian intellectual • Regarded as the second movement that was most richest man in history. prominent in the early • Devoted a large portion 20th century United States of his wealth to charity and Canada. The movement applied (The Gospel of Wealth). Christian ethics to social problems, especially issuesJohn D. Rockefeller of social justice such as excessive • Founded Standard Oil in wealth, poverty, alcoholis 1870. m, crime, racial • Regarded as the richest tensions, slums, bad man in history. hygiene, child • Established the labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and University of Chicago the danger of war.
Section 2WORKING MAN’S BURDEN: THECONFLICT BETWEEN LABOR & CAPITAL
Essential Questions• What is at the center of this conflict? Does it still exist today?• Was the rise of industry good for American workers?
Karl Marx and the Rise of the Proletariat Karl Marx: 1. Developed the modern theory of socialism/communism 2. Theorized all of human history had been a conflict between the bourgeoisie (business owners) and the proletariat (workers). 3. In a capitalist economy (such as the U.S.), the bourgeoisie exploited the proletariat in order to accumulate more material possessions for themselves. U.S. Labor Relations"The wealth of those societies in 1. Eugene V. Debs (head of the IWW orwhich the capitalist mode of Wobblies and Samuel Gompers (headproduction prevails, presents itself of the AFL), were both sympathetic toas an immense accumulation of the ideals of socialism/communism.commodities, its unit being a 2. Many U.S. workers joined pro-socialistsingle commodity." (First sentence movements and political partiesof Capital, Volume I.)
Section 3ORIGINS OF EMPIRE: OVERSEASINCURSIONS AND PUBLIC DEBATE
Essential Questions• Why did America choose to become a colonial and imperial power despite the wishes of many citizens? Did the nation’s actions reflect the values of the Declaration of Independence?• What were the motivations behind the nation’s military actions abroad? Were they justified?
Imperialism Defined: Examples of U.S. Imperialism •A policy of extending a 1. Spanish-American War countrys power and influence • Cuba (protectorate) through diplomacy or military • Puerto Rico (territory) force. • Guam (territory) • Philippines (protectorate) 2. Hawaii (annexed)Reasons for Imperialism: 3. Alaska (purchased from Russia)1. Establish power and prestige Results of U.S. Imperialism2. Demonstrate military power3. Access to natural resources and 1. Cuba granted ports independence4. New markets for manufactured 2. War with the Philippines. goods 3. Guam and Puerto Rico5. Limit the power of other remain territories. imperialist nations 4. Hawaii annexed against the will of the native population.
U.S. Foreign Policy Supporting Imperialism “Big Stick Policy” or Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: • Developed by President Theodore Roosevelt. • Expanded on the Monroe Doctrine. Wilson’s “Moral • U.S. would consider any Diplomacy”: intervention in North American an act of • The United aggression States should Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”: intervene in other • Implements by President nations when it is William Howard Taft. “morally right”. • Sought to use U.S. business investment to influence foreign policy goals.