Civright

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Civright

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. “Strange Fruit” (1940) written by Lewis Allen Southern trees bear strange fruit Blood on the leaves Blood at the root Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees Pastoral scene of the gallant south The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth The scent of magnolia sweet and fresh Then the sudden smell of burning flesh! Here is a fruit for the crows to pluck For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck For the sun to rot, for the tree to drop Here is a strange and bitter crop. 2
  3. 3. The Civil Rights Movement Six Phases 1900-Present 3
  4. 4. Civil Rights OutlineKey periods (Dates approximate and overlapping) Post reconstruction self segregation 1877-19201. Self-segregation no longer an option 1900-19202. Organization of pro-rights (and anti-rights) groups and attempts at reform through lobbying and lawsuits 1908-19503. Expansion of some rights to African-Americans by a tiny few white leaders 1930-19604. Black individuals and organizations force confrontation over rights 1955-19705. Clear progress toward rights but frustration with the speed resulting in militancy and violence 1964 - 19756. Steady progress toward rights with retrenchment of society interest in the issue 1980 - 4 Present
  5. 5. 1877-1900 Post Reconstruction Self-SegregationBlack Codes during ReconstructionJim Crow Laws after ReconstructionIn rural deep south – All black communities in some localesIn towns, “the other side of the tracks.” 5
  6. 6. 1. Development of Modern Black - White Conflict Problem Identification : Self-segregation no longer an option Washington (traditionalists) vs. Dubois (Niagara Movement)  1900-1920 6
  7. 7. 2. Organization of Activists – African AmericansOrganization of individuals to address the problems of race1. NAACP 19092. Universal Negro Improvement Association Marcus Garvey 1929 “Black is Beautiful”3. Nation of Islam 1930 7
  8. 8. 2. Organization of Activists - Whites Joseph Simmons  “Birth of a Nation” – DW Griffith  Murder of Mary Phagan and the Lynching of Leo Frank  The 2nd KKK 1915 8
  9. 9. 3. White Power Structure Grants RightsPowerful people support black Powerful people must then actively oppose black Civ Rights for reasons of moral compulsion or for Civil Rights for reasons of personal advantage moral compulsion often at great risk, sometimes for personal advantageFDR Governor of ArkansasHarry Truman 1948 - Orval FaubusBranch Rickey 1947 Governor of Mississippi Jackie Robinson - Ross BarnettThe Supreme Court Governors of Alabama Sweatt v. Painter (1950) - John Patterson McLaurin v. Oklahoma (1950) - George Wallace Brown v. Board of Education (1954) From Kentucky (1798) and Virginia (1799) ResolutionsSchool Board Little Rock, Arkansas - Nullification - Interposition 9
  10. 10. 4. Direct Action - ConfrontationAfrican-Americans discover a set of tools to force the power structure of the nation to: a) confront their own racism and make a conscious decision to accept or reject that racism b) reject racism for their own economic self-interestsRules about segregation of busses – Montgomery 1955Rosa Parks 10
  11. 11. 4. Direct Action - ConfrontationLocal Church Leaders reluctant to respond: • Martin Luther King - Ralph David Abernathy“Powder Keg” Crisis required a response • Organized and peaceful vs. spontaneous and violentBoycott – 2/3 of Montgomery Busline RidershipNewly discovered power in the “powerless”Demands 1. Integration of busses 2. Hire black drivers 3. White drivers courteous to black riders 11
  12. 12. 4. Direct Action - ConfrontationEffects of Montgomery Bus boycott1. New Leadership2. New Organization – SCLC3. New emphasis in tactics and philosophy: 1. Non-violence Jesus Christ 2. Civil Disobedience Henry David Thoreau 3. Passive-resistance Mohndas K. Ghandi 4. Direct Action Jim LawsonSummarized by King in the phrase:“Let no man bring you so low as to hate him…. We must confront physical force with a new force, ‘Soul Force.’ “ 12
  13. 13. 4. Direct Action - Confrontation1955 – Murder of Emmett Till (14) – His mother’s defiance:The “first great media event” of the Civil Rights Movement (David Halberstam)Photos of the Chicago Funeral in national magazines 13
  14. 14. 4. Direct Action - Confrontation Lunch Counter “Sit-ins”  Downtown department stores • Greensboro • Nashville • Atlanta, etc.  First Direct Action demonstrations  SNCC  National boycott of chain stores “Freedom Rides”  Interstate Bus service  CORE  Not actually “Civil Disobedience” because …? 14
  15. 15. 4. Direct Action - ConfrontationDeath of Medgar Evers  Protest Marches in Birmingham  Bull Connor 15
  16. 16. 4. Direct Action - ConfrontationThe March on Washington Aug 1963 – the famous “I Have a Dream” speech  16 Civil Rights Act of 1964
  17. 17. 4. Direct Action - Confrontation Selma, Alabama – Voting Rights March  Edmund Pettus Bridge  Voting Rights Act of 196517
  18. 18. 5. The Violence of Frustration Clear progress toward rights But frustration with the pace of change Result –  Militancy and violence  1964 - 1975 18
  19. 19. 5. The Violence of FrustrationThe Good Voting Rights exercised Martin Luther King – Nobel Peace Prize LBJ appoints: 1. Robert Weaver –1st Cabinet member (HUD) 2. Thurgood Marshall – 1st Justice SC For the first time, African-Americans in the Public Arts in ways 1. Visible 2. Powerful 19
  20. 20. Oscar Best Actor 20
  21. 21. 5. The Violence of FrustrationThe Bad Raised Hopes and Expectations But economic equality is decades away Spontaneous riots in non-southern cities  Example - Watts Riots (LA)1965 A move in Calif. to block the fair housing provision of the Civil Rights Act built tensions Exploded after a routine traffic stop escalated 6 days, hundreds of buildings, 4000 arrests, 34 dead 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 5. The Violence of FrustrationThe Bad – Continued Organizations  The Nation of Islam (The “Black Muslims”) •Elijah Mohamed •Cassius Clay (Muhamed Ali) •Malcolm “X” – Freedom “By any means necessary” •Louis Farakhan  The Black Panthers •H. “Rap” Brown (Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin) – Re: Cambridge, MA - “Burn this town down” •Huey Newton 23 – “Political power comes from the barrel of a gun”
  24. 24. 5. The Violence of Frustration The Bad – Continued again  The Assassination of Martin Luther King Cross reference with 1968 from next presentation 24
  25. 25. 6. Progress and Retrenchment The natural historic “rhythm”  Change followed by reactionism • A period of social reform followed by • A period of materialism followed by • A period of spiritual awakening (and so on) 25
  26. 26. 6. Progress and RetrenchmentAffirmative Action Consideration of race, ethnicity, or sex in the acceptance of qualified applicants  First in policy by Nixon Administration  Publicly popular in 1970’s  Declared constitutional by Regents of University California v. Bakke (1978)  Opposition builds in 1980’s – 00’s California ends Affirmative Action in all state programs Bush 43 administration supporting private lawsuit to overturn affirm. action at Univ. of Michigan 26
  27. 27. 6. Progress and Retrenchment - Continued Poverty Rates  Post WWII national average approx. 12%  For Afr. Americans •1998 – 1st year below 30% •2000 – 22%, a record low – Also 2002 – 7.5% for Whites Incarceration Rates  Chance of a black male spending some time in jail in his lifetime • 28.5%  Chance of a white male • 2.5% 27
  28. 28. Legacies of the Civil Rights Movement 28
  29. 29. Legacies of the Civil Rights Movement1. Inspiration for other movements a. Hispanics, Latinos, Mexican Americans  Caesar Chavez a. Native Americans  AIM a. Women  NOW  ERA a. Gays and Lesbians  Stonewall Riot 29
  30. 30. Legacies of the Civil Rights Movement 2. Economic growth  More complete use of ALL our resources  Especially in South 2. Object lesson for other forms of prejudice 30
  31. 31. Sources•http://www.trctc.commnet.edu/Prog_Study/Soc_Scie...07/Billie%20Holiday%20-%20Strange%20Fruit.mp3•http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aap/photo06.jpg•http://timmer.org/Distance%20Learning/Images/17B_L02/lynching6.jpg•http://timmer.org/Distance%20Learning/History_17B/Lecture02/Lecture02_p04.htm•http://www.musarium.com/withoutsanctuary/main.html•http://www.american.edu/bgriff/H207web/civrights/CivilRightsOutline.htm•http://www.lcgworks.com/movies/pictures/lilies%20of%20the%20field.html•http://www.nextag.com/Lilies_of_the_Field~62471z0znz400000zzmainz6-htm•http://www.sherylsworld.com/trekwomen_uhura_sites.html•http://www.bol.ucla.edu/~jungirl1/65riotspage.htm•http://www.displaysforschools.com/kkk.jpg•http://memory.loc.gov/music/gottlieb/04000/04200/04251v.jpg•http://www.wehaitians.com/how%20photos%20became%20icon%20of%20civil%20rights%20movement.html•http://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/jwb/Collab/CivRtsWeb/SNCC.htm•http://dreamer1.hp.infoseek.co.jp/dream.html•http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/images/s84.6p1.jpg 31

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