The Americas before Columbus• 50 million people (?)• No metal technology• No large domesticated animals• Complex trade networks• Complex cultures and civilizations
Essential Questions• How did the first immigrants reach North America?• What cultures and civilization flourished in the Americas prior to European contact?• What were the positive and negative effects of European contact?• Was this a period of contact or conquest?
Aztec Warrior Dress in Front of the Shrine of the Virgen de Guadalupe, Mexico City
• Skilled warriors • Weapons from wood, stone and volcanic glass• Conquered surrounding people• Captives sacrificed
Hernan Cortes• Conquistador• Landed in Mexico in 1519• Conquered Aztecs by 1521• Native allies – Nahuas – Tlaxcaltec – Totonacs• Small pox
Moctezuma II• Aztec Ruler• Host and Prisoner ofthe Conquistadores• Details of his deathare disputed
Columbian Exchange: The transfer of living things between the “Old” and “New” Worlds“Old World” “New” World (North and (Europe, Africa, & South America) Asia) • Corn• Horses • Potato• Pigs • Tobacco• Cattle • Beans• Wheat • Peanut• Sugar • Turkey• Small Pox• Measles