ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & NEURAL NETWORKS

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Mr. Koushal Kumar Has done his M.Tech degree in Computer Science and Engineering from Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, India. He obtained his B.S.C and M.S.C in computer science from D.A.V College Amritsar Punjab. His area of research interests lies in Artificial Neural Networks, Soft computing, Computer Networks, Grid Computing, and data base management systems

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & NEURAL NETWORKS

  1. 1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE &NEURAL NETWORKS Koushal Kumar M.Tech CSE Lovely professional university Mob:+918968939621
  2. 2. ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE &NEURAL NETWORKSAre computers smart enough to replace people?
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION TO AI Artificial intelligence (AI)  Computers with the ability to duplicate the functions of the human brain Artificially intelligent systems  The people, procedures, hardware, software, data, and knowledge needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate the characteristics of intelligence
  4. 4. HISTORY OF COMPUTERS The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. Does anyone know the different generations? Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate.
  5. 5. First Generation: 1940 to 1956 During this generation, computers were built with vacuum tubes. These electronic tubes were about the size of a light bulb. The first computers were often enormous, taking up entire rooms.
  6. 6. Second Generation: 1956 to 1963 This generation begins with Transistors replacing vacuum tubes Allowed computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable First computers that stored their instructions in their memory
  7. 7. Third Generation: 1964 to 1971 The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers Transistors were minimized and placed on silicon chips, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system
  8. 8. Fourth Generation: 1971 to Present The microprocessor brought the fourth generation  thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip Equivalent of the first generation (entire room) could now fit in the palm of the hand
  9. 9. Fifth Generation: Present & beyond Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization
  10. 10. Brain and MachineThe Brain – Pattern Recognition – Association – Complexity – Noise Tolerance The Machine – Calculation – Precision – Logic
  11. 11. Assessment of Current AI1. Current AI ≈ Advanced Computing (rather than “Intelligence“)2. If an AI technique sounds too good to be true, you are right most of the time.3. If an AI technique requires "common sense," it is unlikely to be fully practical in the foreseeable future.
  12. 12. What is artificial intelligence? Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it. Intelligence exhibited by an artificial (non- natural, man-made) entity; the study and design of intelligent agents, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success.
  13. 13. Artificialintelligence
  14. 14. Major Branches of AI(1)Perceptive system or Artificially intelligent system  A system that approximates the way a human sees, hears, and feels objects Vision system  Capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures Robotics  Mechanical and computer devices that perform tedious tasks with high precision Expert system  Stores knowledge and makes inferences
  15. 15. Major Branches of AI(2) Learning system  Computer changes how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback Natural language processing  Computers understand and react to statements and commands made in a “natural” language, such as English Neural network  Computer system that can act like or simulate the functioning of the human brain
  16. 16. Benefits of Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, scientific discovery and toys. Artificial intelligence is widely used in the field of gaming e.g. the game of chess.
  17. 17. What is Neural Network? computer architecture in which processors are connected in a manner suggestive of connections between neurons; can learn by trial and error any network of neurons or nuclei that function together to perform some function in the body NEURAL NETWORK ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK
  18. 18. Layers of Neural Networks Each ANN is composed of a collection of perceptions grouped in layers.the three layers:input, intermediate(called the hiddenlayer) and output.Several hidden layerscan be placedbetween the inputand output layers.
  19. 19. Types of Layers• The input layer – Introduces input values into the network – No activation function or other processing• The hidden layer(s) – Perform classification of features – Two hidden layers are sufficient to solve any problem – Features imply more layers may be better• The output layer. – Functionally just like the hidden layers – Outputs are passed on to the world outside the neural network.
  20. 20. Benefits of Neural Networks Pattern recognition, learning, classification, generalization and abstraction, and interpretation of incomplete and noisy inputs Provide some human problem-solving characteristics Robust Fast, flexible and easy to maintain Powerful hybrid systems
  21. 21. ADVANTAGES… A neural network can perform tasks that a linear program can not. When an element of the neural network fails, it can continue without any problem by their parallel nature. A neural network learns and does not need to be reprogrammed. It can be implemented in any application. It can be implemented without any problem.
  22. 22. DISADVANTAGES… THIS CAUSES THE LOSS OF HUMAN CONTROL OVER THOSE "DEEMED MACHINES". THEY MAY DOMINATE US IN THE NEAR FUTURE. SOMETIMES IT MAY CAUSE THE DESTRUCTION OF THE "ENTIRE BEAUTIFUL HUMAN RACE"
  23. 23. APPLICATIONS OF AI & NN Artificial Intelligence in the form of expert systems and neural networks have applications in every field of human endeavor. Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, scientific discovery and toys. Neural Networks are used in the recognition systems such as voice recognition.
  24. 24. Queries?..

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