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Neural network & its applications

It is a presentation that acquaints you with the latest technology that can recognise patterns i.e neural networks and some of its applications.

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Neural Networks and its
     Applications


           Presented By:
              Ahmed Hashmi
              Chinmoy Das
What is neural network


An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information
processing paradigm that is inspired by biological
nervous systems.
It is composed of a large number of highly
interconnected processing elements called neurons.
An ANN is configured for a specific application, such
as pattern recognition or data classification
Why use neural networks


ability to derive meaning from complicated or
imprecise data
extract patterns and detect trends that are too
complex to be noticed by either humans or other
computer techniques
Adaptive learning
Real Time Operation
Neural Networks v/s Conventional
          Computers


 Conventional computers use an algorithmic
 approach, but neural networks works similar to
 human brain and learns by example.
Inspiration from Neurobiology
A neuron: many-inputs / one-
output unit
output can be excited or not
excited
incoming signals from other
neurons determine if the
neuron shall excite ("fire")
Output subject to attenuation
in the synapses, which are
junction parts of the neuron
A simple neuron


Takes the Inputs .
Calculate the summation
of the Inputs .
Compare it with the
threshold being set
during the learning stage.

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Neural network & its applications

  • 1. Neural Networks and its Applications Presented By: Ahmed Hashmi Chinmoy Das
  • 2. What is neural network An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by biological nervous systems. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements called neurons. An ANN is configured for a specific application, such as pattern recognition or data classification
  • 3. Why use neural networks ability to derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data extract patterns and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer techniques Adaptive learning Real Time Operation
  • 4. Neural Networks v/s Conventional Computers Conventional computers use an algorithmic approach, but neural networks works similar to human brain and learns by example.
  • 5. Inspiration from Neurobiology A neuron: many-inputs / one- output unit output can be excited or not excited incoming signals from other neurons determine if the neuron shall excite ("fire") Output subject to attenuation in the synapses, which are junction parts of the neuron
  • 6. A simple neuron Takes the Inputs . Calculate the summation of the Inputs . Compare it with the threshold being set during the learning stage.
  • 7. Firing Rules A firing rule determines how one calculates whether a neuron should fire for any input pattern. some sets cause it to fire (the 1-taught set of patterns) and others which prevent it from doing so (the 0-taught set)
  • 8. Example… X For example, a 3-input 1: 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 neuron is taught to X 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 output 1 when the input 2: (X1,X2 and X3) is 111 or 101 X 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 and to output 0 when the 3: input is 000 or 001. O 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ U 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 T:
  • 9. Example… Take the pattern 010. It differs X from 000 in 1 element, from 001 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1: in 2 elements, from 101 in 3 elements and from 111 in 2 X elements. Therefore, the 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 2: 'nearest' pattern is 000 which belongs in the 0-taught set. Thus X 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 the firing rule requires that the 3: neuron should not fire when the input is 001. On the other hand, 011 is equally distant from two O taught patterns that have 0/ 0/ U 0 0 0 1 1 1 different outputs and thus the 1 1 T: output stays undefined (0/1).
  • 10. Types of neural network fixed networks in which the weights cannot be changed, ie dW/dt=0. In such networks, the weights are fixed a priori according to the problem to solve. adaptive networks which are able to change their weights, ie dW/dt not= 0.
  • 11. The Learning Process Associative mapping in which the network learns to produce a particular pattern on the set of input units whenever another particular pattern is applied on the set of input units. The associative mapping can generally be broken down into two mechanisms:
  • 12. Hetero-association: is related to two recall mechanisms: Nearest-neighbour recall, where the output pattern produced corresponds to the input pattern stored, which is closest to the pattern presented, and Interpolative recall, where the output pattern is a similarity dependent interpolation of the patterns stored corresponding to the pattern presented. Yet another paradigm, which is a variant associative mapping is classification, ie when there is a fixed set of categories into which the input patterns are to be classified.
  • 13. Supervised Learning Supervised learning which incorporates an external teacher, so that each output unit is told what its desired response to input signals ought to be. During the learning process global information may be required. Paradigms of supervised learning include error-correction learning, reinforcement learning and stochastic learning. An important issue concerning supervised learning is the problem of error convergence, ie the minimisation of error between the desired and computed unit values. The aim is to determine a set of weights which minimises the error. One well-known method, which is common to many learning paradigms is the least mean square (LMS) convergence.
  • 14. Unsupervised Learning Unsupervised learning uses no external teacher and is based upon only local information. It is also referred to as self-organisation, in the sense that it self-organises data presented to the network and detects their emergent collective properties. From Human Neurons to Artificial Neurons their aspect of learning concerns the distinction or not of a separate phase, during which the network is trained, and a subsequent operation phase. We say that a neural network learns off-line if the learning phase and the operation phase are distinct. A neural network learns on-line if it learns and operates at the same time. Usually, supervised learning is performed off-line, whereas unsupervised learning is performed on-line.
  • 15. Back-propagation Algorithm it calculates how the error changes as each weight is increased or decreased slightly. The algorithm computes each EW by first computing the EA, the rate at which the error changes as the activity level of a unit is changed. For output units, the EA is simply the difference between the actual and the desired output.
  • 16. Transfer Function The behaviour of an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) depends on both the weights and the input-output function (transfer function) that is specified for the units. This function typically falls into one of three categories: linear (or ramp) threshold sigmoid For linear units, the output activity is proportional to the total weighted output. For threshold units, the output is set at one of two levels, depending on whether the total input is greater than or less than some threshold value. For sigmoid units, the output varies continuously but not linearly as the input changes. Sigmoid units bear a greater resemblance to real neurones than do linear or threshold units, but all three must be considered rough approximations.
  • 17. Application INTRODUCTION  Features of finger prints  Finger print recognition system  Why neural networks?  Goal of the system  Preprocessing system  Feature extraction using neural networks  Classification  result
  • 18. Features of finger prints Finger prints are the unique pattern of ridges and valleys in every person’s fingers. Their patterns are permanent and unchangeable for whole life of a person. They are unique and the probability that two fingerprints are alike is only 1 in 1.9x10^15. Their uniqueness is used for identification of a person.
  • 19. Finger print recognition system Image edge Ridge Thinin Feature classifi acquisiti detecti extractio g extracti cation on on n on Image acquisition: the acquired image is digitalized into 512x512 image with each pixel assigned a particular gray scale value (raster image). edge detection and thinning: these are preprocessing of the image , remove noise and enhance the image.
  • 20. Finger print recognition system Feature extraction: this the step where we point out the features such as ridge bifurcation and ridge endings of the finger print with the help of neural network. Classification: here a class label is assigned to the image depending on the extracted features.
  • 21. Why using neural networks? Neural networks enable us to find solution where algorithmic methods are computationally intensive or do not exist. There is no need to program neural networks they learn with examples. Neural networks offer significant speed advantage over conventional techniques.
  • 22. Preprocessing system The first phase of finger print recognition is to capture a image . The image is captured using total internal reflection of light (TIR). The image is stored as a two dimensional array of 512x512 size, each element of array representing a pixel and assigned a gray scale value from 256 gray scale levels.
  • 23. Preprocessing system After image is captured ,noise is removed using edge detection, ridge extraction and thinning. Edge detection: the edge of the image is defined where the gray scale levels changes greatly. also, orientation of ridges is determined for each 32x32 block of pixels using gray scale gradient. Ridge extraction: ridges are extracted using the fact that gray scale value of pixels are maximum along the direction normal to the ridge orientation.
  • 24. Preprocessing system Thinning: the extracted ridges are converted into skeletal structure in which ridges are only one pixel wide. thinning should not- Remove isolated as well as surrounded pixel. Break connectedness. Make the image shorter.
  • 25. Feature extraction using neural networks Multilayer perceptron network of three layers is trained to detect minutiae in the thinned image. The first layer has nine perceptrons The hidden layer has five perceptrons The output layer has one perceptron. The network is trained to output ‘1’ when the input window is centered at the minutiae and it outputs ‘0’ when minutiae are not present.
  • 26. Feature extraction using neural networks Trained neural networks are used to analyze the image by scanning the image with a 3x3 window. To avoid falsely reported features which are due to noise – The size of scanning window is increased to 5x5 If the minutiae are too close to each other than we ignore all of them.
  • 27. classification finger prints can be classified mainly in four classes depending upon their general pattern- Arch Tented arch Right loop Left loop
  • 28. Applications of Fingerprint Recognition As finger print recognition system can be easily embedded in any system. It is used in- Recognition of criminals in law enforcement bodies. Used to provide security to cars, lockers, banks ,shops. To differentiate between a person who has voted and those who have not voted in govt. elections. To count individuals.
  • 29. Neural Network Toolbox in MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox™ provides tools for designing, implementing, visualizing, and simulating neural networks. Neural networks are used for applications where formal analysis would be difficult or impossible, such as pattern recognition and nonlinear system identification and control. Neural Network Toolbox supports feedforward networks, radial basis networks, dynamic networks, self- organizing maps, and other proven network paradigms.
  • 30. Key Features Neural network design, training, and simulation Pattern recognition, clustering, and data-fitting tools Supervised networks including feedforward, radial basis, LVQ, time delay, nonlinear autoregressive (NARX), and layer-recurrent Unsupervised networks including self-organizing maps and competitive layers Preprocessing and postprocessing for improving the efficiency of network training and assessing network performance Modular network representation for managing and visualizing networks of arbitrary size Routines for improving generalization to prevent overfitting Simulink blocks for building and evaluating neural networks, and advanced blocks for control systems applications
  • 31. Working with Neural Network Toolbox Like its counterpart in the biological nervous system, a neural network can learn and therefore can be trained to find solutions, recognize patterns, classify data, and forecast future events. The behavior of a neural network is defined by the way its individual computing elements are connected and by the strength of those connections, or weights. The weights are automatically adjusted by training the network according to a specified learning rule until it performs the desired task correctly. Neural Network Toolbox includes command-line functions and graphical tools for creating, training, and simulating neural networks. Graphical tools make it easy to develop neural networks for tasks such as data fitting (including time-series data), pattern recognition, and clustering. After creating your networks in these tools, you can automatically generate MATLAB code to capture your work and automate tasks.
  • 33. Network Architectures Neural Network Toolbox supports a variety of supervised and unsupervised network architectures. With the toolbox’s modular approach to building networks, you can develop custom architectures for your specific problem. You can view the network architecture including all inputs, layers, outputs, and interconnections.
  • 34. Supervised Networks Supervised neural networks are trained to produce desired outputs in response to sample inputs, making them particularly well-suited to modeling and controlling dynamic systems, classifying noisy data, and predicting future events. Neural Network Toolbox supports four types of supervised networks: Feedforward networks have one-way connections from input to output layers. They are most commonly used for prediction, pattern recognition, and nonlinear function fitting. Supported feedforward networks include feedforward backpropagation, cascade-forward backpropagation, feedforward input-delay backpropagation, linear, and perceptron networks. Radial basis networks provide an alternative, fast method for designing nonlinear feedforward networks. Supported variations include generalized regression and probabilistic neural networks. Dynamic networks use memory and recurrent feedback connections to recognize spatial and temporal patterns in data. They are commonly used for time-series prediction, nonlinear dynamic system modeling, and control systems applications. Prebuilt dynamic networks in the toolbox include focused and distributed time-delay, nonlinear autoregressive (NARX), layer-recurrent, Elman, and Hopfield networks. The toolbox also supports dynamic training of custom networks with arbitrary connections. Learning vector quantization (LVQ) is a powerful method for classifying patterns that are not linearly separable. LVQ lets you specify class boundaries and the granularity of classification.
  • 35. Unsupervised Networks Unsupervised neural networks are trained by letting the network continually adjust itself to new inputs. They find relationships within data and can automatically define classification schemes. Neural Network Toolbox supports two types of self-organizing, unsupervised networks: Competitive layers recognize and group similar input vectors, enabling them to automatically sort inputs into categories. Competitive layers are commonly used for classification and pattern recognition. Self-organizing maps learn to classify input vectors according to similarity. Like competitive layers, they are used for classification and pattern recognition tasks; however, they differ from competitive layers because they are able to preserve the topology of the input vectors, assigning nearby inputs to nearby categories.
  • 37. Training and Learning Functions Training and learning functions are mathematical procedures used to automatically adjust the network's weights and biases. The training function dictates a global algorithm that affects all the weights and biases of a given network. The learning function can be applied to individual weights and biases within a network. Neural Network Toolbox supports a variety of training algorithms, including several gradient descent methods, conjugate gradient methods, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LM), and the resilient backpropagation algorithm (Rprop). The toolbox’s modular framework lets you quickly develop custom training algorithms that can be integrated with built-in algorithms. While training your neural network, you can use error weights to define the relative importance of desired outputs, which can be prioritized in terms of sample, timestep (for time-series problems), output element, or any combination of these. You can access training algorithms from the command line or via a graphical tool that shows a diagram of the network being trained and provides network performance plots and status information to help you monitor the training process.
  • 38. Improving Generalization Improving the network’s ability to generalize helps prevent overfitting, a common problem in neural network design. Overfitting occurs when a network has memorized the training set but has not learned to generalize to new inputs. Overfitting produces a relatively small error on the training set but a much larger error when new data is presented to the network. Neural Network Toolbox provides two solutions to improve generalization: Regularization modifies the network’s performance function (the measure of error that the training process minimizes). By including the sizes of the weights and biases, regularization produces a network that performs well with the training data and exhibits smoother behavior when presented with new data. Early stopping uses two different data sets: the training set, to update the weights and biases, and the validation set, to stop training when the network begins to overfit the data.
  • 39. Some different applications Character Recognition - The idea of character recognition has become very important as handheld devices like the Palm Pilot are becoming increasingly popular. Neural networks can be used to recognize handwritten characters. Image Compression - Neural networks can receive and process vast amounts of information at once, making them useful in image compression. With the Internet explosion and more sites using more images on their sites, using neural networks for image compression is worth a look.
  • 40. Stock Market Prediction - The day-to-day business of the stock market is extremely complicated. Many factors weigh in whether a given stock will go up or down on any given day. Since neural networks can examine a lot of information quickly and sort it all out, they can be used to predict stock prices. Traveling Salesman Problem- Interestingly enough, neural networks can solve the traveling salesman problem, but only to a certain degree of approximation. Medicine, Electronic Nose, Security, and Loan Applications - These are some applications that are in their proof-of-concept stage, with the acceptance of a neural network that will decide whether or not to grant a loan, something that has already been used more successfully than many humans. Miscellaneous Applications - These are some very interesting (albeit at times a little absurd) applications of neural networks.
  • 41. Application principles The solution of a problem must be the simple. Complicated solutions waste time and resources. If a problem can be solved with a small look-up table that can be easily calculated that is a more preferred solution than a complex neural network with many layers that learns with back- propagation.
  • 42. Application principles The speed is crucial for computer game applications. If it is possible on-line neural network solutions should be avoided, because they are big time consumers. Preferably, neural networks should be applied in an off-line fashion, when the learning phase doesn’t happen during the game playing time.
  • 43. Application principles On-line neural network solutions should be very simple. Using many layer neural networks should be avoided, if possible. Complex learning algorithms should be avoided. If possible a priori knowledge should be used to set the initial parameters such that very short training is needed for optimal performance.
  • 44. Application principles All the available data should be collected about the problem. Having redundant data is usually a smaller problem than not having the necessary data. The data should be partitioned in training, validation and testing data.
  • 45. Application principles The neural network solution of a problem should be selected from a large enough pool of potential solutions. Because of the nature of the neural networks, it is likely that if a single solution is build than that will not be the optimal one. If a pool of potential solutions is generated and trained, it is more likely that one which is close to the optimal one is found.
  • 46. Problem Problem analysis: • variables • modularisation into sub-problems • objectives • data collection
  • 47. Neural network solution Data collection and organization: training, validation and testing data sets Example: Training set: ~ 75% of the data Validation set: ~ 10% of the data Testing set: ~ 5% of the data
  • 48. Neural network solution Neural network solution selection each candidate solution is tested with the 5 2.5 5 validation data and the best performing network is 0 4 -2.5 selected 1 3 2 3 2 4 1 Network 11 Network 4 Network 7 5 7.5 5 5 5 5 2.5 5 2.5 2.5 0 0 0 4 4 4 -2.5 -2.5 -2.5 1 3 1 3 1 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 4 4 4 1 1 5 1 5
  • 49. Neural network solution Choosing a solution representation: the solution can be represented directly as a neural network specifying the parameters of the neurons alternatively the solution can be represented as a multi-dimensional look-up table the representation should allow fast use of the solution within the application
  • 50. Summary • Neural network solutions should be kept as simple as possible. • For the sake of the gaming speed neural networks should be applied preferably off-line. • A large data set should be collected and it should be divided into training, validation, and testing data. • Neural networks fit as solutions of complex problems. • A pool of candidate solutions should be generated, and the best candidate solution should be selected using the validation data. • The solution should be represented to allow fast application.